Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Stylistic use of intonation

21 Февраля 2015, курсовая работа

In linguistics, intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words, instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of question, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. It contrasts with tone, in which pitch variation in some languages does distinguish words, either lexically or grammatically. Although intonation is primarily a matter of pitch variation, it is important to be aware that functions attributed to intonation such as the expression of attitudes and emotions, or highlighting aspects of grammatical structure, almost always involve concomitant variation in other prosodic features.

Stylistics of the English language

01 Ноября 2013, курс лекций

The book suggests the fundamentals of stylistic theory that outline such basic areas of research as expressive resources of the language, stylistic differentiation of vocabulary, varieties of the national language and sociolinguistic and pragmatic factors that determine functional styles.
The second chapter will take a student of English to the beginnings of stylistics in Greek and Roman schools of rhetoric and show how-much modern terminology and classifications of expressive means owe to rhetoric.

Supply Chain Management

28 Мая 2012, статья

Supply chain management (SCM) is a broadened management focus that considers the combined impact of all the companies involved in the production of goods and services, from suppliers to manufacturers to wholesalers to retailers to final consumers and beyond to disposal and recycling.

Syntagmatic valency of adverbs and its actualization in speech

23 Декабря 2013, реферат

In accord with the 3-criteria principle of the lexico-grammatical word classification (semantic, formal and functional), parts of speech are discriminated on the basis of:
1) common categorial meaning;
2) common paradigm (morphological form and specific forms of derivation);
3) common syntactic function.

System of Education in the United Kingdom

13 Ноября 2013, доклад

The quality of a country's future life, commercially, industrially and intellectually, depends on the quality of its education system. The state in the United Kingdom provides a full range of free schooling. Those parents who prefer to send their children to private educational institutions, are free to do so. There are about 2500 fee-paying, or public schools in the country.State schooling in the UK is not as centralized as in most European countries. Firstly, there is no prescribed curriculum.

Table of Contents

29 Ноября 2015, реферат

Part 1. Colonial economy
Part 2. New nation`s economy
Part 3. Movement south and westward
Part 4. An uncertain economy: 1820-1860
Part 5. Economic expansion, enlarged markets
Part 6. Industrial growth
Part 7. Inventions and resource development

Teaching Dialogical Speech at Different Levels of Language Acquisition

09 Августа 2013, реферат

Language came into life as a mean of communication. It exists and is alive only through speech. When we speak about teaching a foreign language, we first of all have in mind teaching it as a mean of communication. Studies of classroom communication indicate that certain patterns of interaction sa dialogical speech.
The theme of this paper “Teaching dialogical speech at different levels of language acquisition” was chosen not by chance. In the teaching – learning process we faced the problem that the students do not have enough skill in dialogical speech.When we say a person knows a language we first of all mean he understands the language spoken and can speak it himself. In teaching a foreign language it is necessary to think about what motivates pupils to speak.

Teatret, film and television

18 Января 2015, сочинение

Huge role in the life of every person plays - rest. One of a kind vacation is entertainment. For example, teatret, film and television.
People have always liked visiting theaters for relaxing, entertaining and just having a good time. Theater is one of the best means of art and entertainment, which brings cultural enrichment. It uses live performers on stage to express different plays. From the times of its appearance theater has changed a lot.

Technologies of teaching a foreign language as a second

21 Января 2014, курсовая работа

The structure of this course work consists of two parts: theoretical and practical. In the first chapter “The bases of teaching a foreign language” different bases and principles of teaching are considered. Analyzing publications on a problem of research in the second chapter of theoretical part the most effective methods and ways of teaching are suggested. The basic part of work is a practical part with exposition of experience of teachers – innovators. In it rod directions of technique of teaching different age - groups are proved and the analysis of the given approaches is resulted, including a number of methods and the receptions, raising quality of teaching a foreign language.

Teise i garbe ir oruma

28 Января 2014, реферат

Teisėjų kolegija įvertinusi apeliantės skundo argumentus bei faktinius bylos duomenis, pažymi, kad privataus kaltinimo pobūdžio esmė lemia tai, kad pirmiausia nukentėjusysis sprendžia, ar prieš jį padarytomis veikomis jo interesai yra paleisti taip aštriai, kad dėl to verta kreiptis į teismą ir pradėti privataus kaltinimo procesą. Todėl natūralu, kad gali būti susiduriama su tokia situacija, kai asmuo, save vertinantis kaip nukentėjusį asmenį, gali per jautriai sureaguoti į kito – kaltinamo nusikaltimu – asmens išsakytus žodžius, mintis ar nuomonę, vertindamas pastarąją kaip nusikaltimą.


16 Января 2012, реферат

Nowadays terrorism became a new global issue. Threats from different organizations or groups who call themselves terrorist it is what politicians are trying to deal with, by increasing international security. Powerful countries are trying to put in order countries that cause danger for whole world by invasion in their lands, trying to change policy of that country. Thus it might cause death of innocent people.

Text presentation

16 Декабря 2013, сочинение

The text under consideration is entitled “Doctor in the house” by English author Richard Gordon.
We deal with only an extract from “Doctor in the house”. So it is rather difficult to state or to define the genre of the text.
The story tells us the process of exams, difficulties provided by them and students’ feelings and thoughts before and after examinations.
As for the theme of the text we must say that it is relationship between people within a society. I consider that the message is that an exam it’s not a climax of your life. The text belongs to fiction.

The advantages and the disadvantages of a multicultural society

24 Февраля 2014, лекция

Living in a multicultural society with people with different traditions and perspectives, makes people communicate with each other. When people communicate, they share ideas and perspectives, so everyone learns a new way to see the world or even a small thing or situation. So there is a development in an intellectual way. Being in a multicultural society also leads to a more open-minded population; people start to see situations from another point of view.

The Aims of Education

28 Октября 2014, доклад

The title of this first selection turns away from a familiar adage to characterize a condition which Steven Cahn sees as all too common among students in today’s colleges and universities. Even worse, according to the author, is the willingness of those colleges and universities to contribute to that condition. From these premises, it is only a short step to conclude that any institution that permits students to indulge themselves in the manner outlined here can only contribute ultimately to the decay of our democracy

The Ajax Youth Development Scheme

11 Января 2014, реферат

Continuity is particularly important in youth development. Everyone involved needs to
be well informed and pulling in the same direction. At Ajax, there is great value placed
on the opinion of the chief scout. In principle, an Ajax youth player is only a member for
one year. An average of 30 of the 160 youth players drop out after one season. In this
context, Ajax has to implement a tough selection procedure. This procedure takes
account of numerous opinions, set out in reports.

The American System of Government

30 Марта 2013, контрольная работа

Работа содержит ответы на вопросы для экзамена (или зачета) по дисциплине "Иностранные языки"

The American System of Government

07 Апреля 2014, реферат

The United States of America today is a federation, or association, of states The fifty states of the USA make one independent nation But before 1776, the King of England ruled thirteen colonies in America The colonists were angry with the King because of taxes1 and in 1775 they started the war for their independence from England The colonists won the war and then the Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and signed by the leaders of the former colonies in Philadelphia on July 4,1776 Thus, a new nation was born and another name for July 4th is Independence Day.

The argument essay whether Kazakhstan should apply Capital Punishment in consuming and possessing Heavy Drugs such as Heroin

23 Августа 2013, курсовая работа

Capital punishment in Kazakhstan will benefit society and government: the crime rates, gang activities, mafias, cartels, and corruption will reduce and the war against drugs will finally cease; In addition, due to authorities’ weak enforcement of law, and corruption in every political lever, there are 500,000 drug addicts in Kazakhstan, which comprises 3.5% of the total population. Therefore the Capital Penalty of Drugs will improve the quality of life.

The articulation basis of the English and the Russian languages

17 Ноября 2015, реферат

In phonetics the basis of articulation is the default position or standard settings of a speaker's organs of articulation when ready to speak.
Different languages each have their own basis of articulation, which means that native speakers will share a certain position of tongue, lips, jaw, possibly even uvula or larynx, when preparing to speak. These standard settings enable them to produce the sounds and prosody of their native language most efficiently. Different accents within a given language may have their own characteristic basis of articulation.

The attitude of young people to education in our days

25 Сентября 2014, сочинение

Об отношении к учебе молодлых людей в наши дни на английмком языке.

The Biography of William Shakespeare

15 Ноября 2013, реферат

Great Britain has given lots of prominent people to the world, but one of the noblest and most famous man of all was William Shakespeare. He was a famous English poet and playwright. William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in a small English city Stratford-upon-Avon, which thanks to him has become one of the most frequently visited places in England. William Shakespeare is also considered to be the father of sonnets. All in all he wrote more than 37 plays, 154 sonnets, two long poems and a great number of other poems. The main genres of Shakespeare’s works were tragedies and comedies

The British Education System. State Education in Britain

29 Сентября 2013, доклад

All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with, books and equipment for their studies. Nine million children attend 35.000 schools in Britain. Education vs compulsory from 5 till 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class. At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in England, Scotland and Wales ate coeducational. At 16 pupils take a national exam called «G.C.S.E.» (General Certificate Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish.

The British Isles

23 Октября 2013, лекция

The British Isles form a group lying off the north-west coast of Europe with a total area of 121,600 square miles. The largest islands are Great Britain proper (comprising the mainlands of England, Wales and Scotland) and Ireland (comprising Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic). Off the southern coast ofEnglandis the Isle of Wight and off the extreme south-west are the Isles of Scilly; off North Wales is Anglesey.Western Scotlandis fringed by numerous islands and to the far north are the important groups of the Orkneys and Shetlands. All these form administrative counties or parts of counties of the mainland, but the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea and the Channel Islands between Great Britain and France have a large measure of administrative autonomy and are not part of England, Wales or Scotland.

The category of cases in English and in Russian languages

19 Ноября 2012, реферат

Grammarians seem to be divided in their opinion as to the case-system of English nouns. Open to thought and questioning, this problem has always been much debated. The most common view on the subject is that nouns have only two cases: a common case and a genitive or possessive case. [21, p 69] The common case is characterised by a zero suffix (child, boy, girl, student), the possessive case by the inflection [-z] and its phonetic variants [-s], [- iz ] , in spelling -'s. The uses of the genitive are known to be specific, those of the common case general. In terms of modern linguistics, we can therefore say that both formally and functionally, ( he common case is unmarked and the genitive marked.

The changing place of the media in the European home

06 Октября 2013, реферат

Two broad trends dominate the explanation of family media access. - First, Rogers’ (1962) diffusion theory predicts that as each technological innovation enters the market, early adopters will tend to be male, affluent and young, but that once diffusion spreads, the adoption curve will accelerate before tailing off, leaving the ‘laggards’ or, often, the disadvantaged (poorer, older) to take longer to gain access, if they ever do. - Second, the presence of children in the household matters: parents tend to acquire more media goods when they have children, being generally ‘ahead’ of the adult population in general, while children pressure parents to keep up to date and to diversify media use according to their growing tastes and interests; overall, it seems, families tend to consider a media‐rich home a ‘well‐provided for’ home.

The Coats of Arms

04 Февраля 2014, творческая работа

These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known as her Arms of Dominion.
The shield shows the Royal emblems of 3 parts of the UK:
The 3 lions of England (first and fourth quarters)
The lion of Scotland (the second quarter)
The harp of Ireland (the third quarter)
The garter with the motto:
‘Honi soit qui mal y pense’ (a symbol of the Order of the Garter)
‘Dieu et mon droit’
the English lion, the Scottish unicorn, the Royal crown
Plants: rose, thistle, shamrock

The Concept Of development of foreign language education

26 Сентября 2013, реферат

Intensely developing integration processes in the last decade, the growth of professional and academic exchanges, deepening international cooperation stimulated the progress of foreign language education. In these circumstances, foreign language becomes a powerful tool of intellectual potential of a society that is becoming in modern history, one of the main resources of the development of the new State.

The Development of Printing

07 Декабря 2013, реферат

he earliest dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 CE. However, it is suspected that book printing may have occurred long before this date. Before Gutenberg, printing was limited in the number of editions made and nearly exclusively decorative, used for pictures and designs. The material to be printed was carved into wood, stone, and metal, rolled with ink or paint and transferred by pressure to parchment or vellum. Books were hand copied mostly by members of religious orders.

The economic theory; the subject, the method. Problems and tendencies of development of the economic theory

11 Марта 2013, лекция

Occurrence and development of economic idea.
2. The subject and the methods of the economic theory.
Structure and functions of economic theory

The Economy Azerbaijan

20 Декабря 2010, реферат

Azerbaijan possesses fertile agricultural lands, rich industrial resources, including considerable oil reserves, and a relatively developed industrial sector. Utilization of those resources in the Soviet period, however, was subject to the usual distortions of centralized planning. In the early 1990s, economic output declined drastically. The major factors in that decline were the deterioration of trade relations with the other former Soviet republics, the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, erosion of consumer buying power, and retention of the ruble alongside the national currency. In 1994 the economy remained heavily dependent on the other former republics of the Soviet Union, especially Russia.