Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Traditions and Customs in Britain

17 Мая 2015, контрольная работа

Every nation and every country has its own traditions. In Britain tradition play a more important part in the life of the people than in oth¬er countries.
The English are very proud of their traditions and carefully keep them. When you come to England you're struck at once by quite a num¬ber of customs. Some ceremonies are rather formal, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the Colour, the State open¬ing of Parliament. Sometimes you will see a group of cavalrymen riding on black horses through the streets of Lon¬don.

Traditions and holidays of Great Britain

31 Марта 2014, творческая работа

I have chosen the topic British customs traditions because I enjoy learning the English language and wanted to know more about British ways of life and traditions. Working on this topic I have to conclusion that British people are very conservative. They are proud pf their traditions and carefully keep them up. It was interesting to know that foreigners coming to England are stuck at once by quite a number of customs and peculiarities.
So I think of Britain as a place a lot of different types of people who observe their traditions.

Traditions UK

05 Февраля 2014, реферат

British hard to imagine Christmas in London with no street illumination in the form of a crown of Her Majesty . Festive city transformed : putting garlands of lights and accommodates a forest of trees , the main of which - fir in Trafalgar Square - annually bring here from Norway as a gift. So Norwegians express their gratitude for the salvation of the UK members of the Norwegian royal family during the Second World War. Britain 's most famous New Year Bazaar held in the legendary town of Lincoln, which is located to the north of London , midway between York and Cambridge . Lincoln - founded by the Romans two thousand years of history with the city.

Traffic in my city

20 Декабря 2012, сочинение

Every country has its own traffic system. Like in many countries of the world, people drive on the right side of the road in Russia, and road signs and markings in Russian roads are in full compliance with global standards. In all of the Russian Federation, there are national traffic regulations that were developed on the basis of the global principals of road safety. Russian traffic regulations comply with European regulations, and there are only slight differences, characteristic of national traffic regulations for each country.

Translate the following business letters into Russian

11 Апреля 2013, контрольная работа

We were very interested in your display at the latest Exhibition held in Moscow. We would be very much obliged if you would send us your illustrated catalogue of your products together with the pricelist, with special reference to all sizes and quantities. We would also like to know what discounts you grant for quantities.
If you can guarantee prompt delivery we would be prepared to place a large order.
We can supply the names of several firms as references.


26 Сентября 2013, сочинение

Many people travel all over the world. And I am no exception to the rule. I would like the USA. The USA is one of the biggest English speaking countries in the world. The capital of the United States Washington. The population of the United States is nearly 250 million people, most of the people live in towns. Millions of people from all over the world come to visit the USA.

TTR Changes in Different Directions of Translation

20 Мая 2014, курсовая работа

There have been a number of attempts to describe the quantitative characteristics of vocabulary, both of a language or sublanguage system and of the language of a particular author, from the point of view of the number and frequency of types, tokens, and and lexemes. We will not even attempt to offer a more or less exhaustive list of these. Gradually, with the development of corpus linguistics, theorists of translation studies have picked up several quantitative ideas from linguistics and, trying to make their criteria for evaluating the differences between original and target texts and the lexical-stylistic adequacy of the translation objective, started to calculate those parameters, which was easily accomplished using computing techniques. Within the last decade there has been a boom in the amoount of research into quantitative parameters in translation studies due to the use of electronic corpora.

Types of companies

20 Апреля 2013, реферат

Basically any person can participate to the creation of companies provided that was not condemned for specific criminal offences stipulated in the law.
Partnerships, limited partnerships and partnerships limited by shares forms a separate corporate entity from their shareholders but all of the shareholders in case of a partnership or only some of them in case of limited partnerships and partnerships limited by shares, are liable for the company’s debts.
In case of the joint stock companies and the limited liability companies, the shareholders’ liability is limited to the amount they had invested, i.e. the subscribed share capital.

Types of economic systems

24 Июня 2013, реферат

An economic system is a mechanism (social institution) which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. The economic system is composed of people, institutions and their relationships to resources, such as the convention of property. It addresses the problems of economics, like the allocation and scarcity of resources.

Types of Figures of Speech

03 Декабря 2014, реферат

Quite a number of figures of speech are based upon the principle of recurrence. Recurrent may be elements of different linguistic layers: lexical, syntactic, morphological, phonetic. Some figures of speech, as will be shown below, emerge as a result of a simultaneous interaction of several principles of poetic expression, i. e. the principle of contrast 4- recurrence; recurrence -f analogy; recurrence + incomplete representation, etc

Types of insurance

24 Декабря 2013, реферат

Insurance - a special kind of economic relations, to ensure coverage of people (or organizations) and their interests against various dangers.
An insurer, or insurance carrier, is a company selling the insurance; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. The amount of money to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.

Types of Word Meaning

21 Января 2013, курсовая работа

The structure of the work – in introduction we set a topicality, a task and mention about the approach we are going to use in our work; in Chapter I we investigate the notion of a word and it’s meaning; in Chapter II we describe the types of word meaning; in Chapter III we make the analysis of connection of types of word meaning; in conclusion we summarize the results of our work; in bibliography we give the list of used literature.

Typology of the Compound Sentence

20 Марта 2014, реферат

Clauses in compound sentences of the contrasted languages are mostly joined by means of co-ordinate conjunctions which provide parataxal relations between them. Conjunctions joining clauses in compound sentences of the contrasted languages are practically of the same semantic nature: copulative, adversative, and causal/or (in English only). Equally common in the contrasted languages are various connectives that join coordinate clauses. These are as follows: therefore, consequently, accordingly, then, hence, so, while, as well as and some explanatory connective words (that is to say, such as, like, let me say and others), which have corresponding functional (and semantic) equivalents in Ukrainian (отже, та, а саме, звідси, тобто, тоді, як-то, так-як, ...так, скажімо, то...то). Co-ordinate conjunctions, as well as various connectives, realise their functional and semantic meaning in structurally and semantically identical English and Ukrainian compound sentences.

United Europe:Pros and Cons

28 Января 2013, сочинение

Over the years the European Union is well known for its stability of economic and social progress. It consists of 27 countries that are united in purpose to provide their citizens with prosperity and well-being within the framework of common economic, political and social interests. European Union covers a mass majority of the Europe and the current Union membership covers a population base of nearly half a billion people.

University of Cambridge

10 Декабря 2013, реферат

The University of Cambridge (informally known as Cambridge University or simply as Cambridge) is a public research university located in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. It is thesecond-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after the University of Oxford), and the third-oldest surviving university in the world. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge)

UrDU Iqtisodiyot fakulteti Turizm yo`nalishi 202 – guruh tolibi Vaisov Nazarbekning “Makroiqtisodiyot” fanidan yozgan

01 Декабря 2014, реферат

Vengriya davlati Yevropa markazining sharqiy qismida joylashgan, bo`lib shimolda Slovakiya, g`arbda Avstriya, Janubi g`arbda Sloveniya va Xorvatiya, janubda Serbiya, janubi sharqda Ruminiya va Shimoli sharqda Ukraina bilan chegaradosh. Iqlimi mo`tadil yillik o`rtacha temperature +9°C, +11°C tashkil etadi. Yozi issiq o`rtacha temperaturasi +25°C ni tashkil etadi. Qishi qisqa va issiq bo`ladi, harorat -4°C bo`ladi. Iqlimi ko`p quyoshli.

Using modal verbs

25 Мая 2013, реферат

The speaker’s judgment may be of different kinds, that is, the speaker may express various modal meanings. Modal verbs unlike other verbs, do not denote actions or states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the infinitive in combination with which they form compound modal predicates. These modal verbs may show that the action (or state, of process, or quality) is viewed by the speaker as possible, obligatory, doubtful, certain, permissible, advisable, requested, prohibited, ordered etc. Modal verbs occur only with the infinitive. This or that meaning is to a great degree determined by communicative type of the sentence and the form of the infinitive. That is a huge problem for foreign learners of English, who make a great deal of mistakes in this field. So, the aim of my work is to show how modal verbs can be used, in what case we need one or other verb and why.

Variants and dialects of the English language. American English. Lexicography. Types of Dictionaries

10 Ноября 2013, реферат

For historical and economic reasons the English language has spread over vast territories. It is the national language of the UK, the USA, Australia, New Zeland and some provinces of Canada. Besides, it used to be a state language in the former colonies of the British Empire: in Asia, Africa, or in countries which fell under US domination in Central and South America.
The key terms in studying the territorial varieties of the English language are: Standard English, variants, dialects.
Standard English is the official language of Great Britain taught at schools and universities, used by the press, the radio and the television and spoken by educated people.

Vibratoru Finishing

01 Сентября 2013, реферат

Vibratory finishing is now the most popular type of mass finishing and, next to
hand deburring, the most common surface conditioning method used by industry. This
versatile process is used for cleaning, deburring, deflashing, descaling, edge and corner
radiusing, surface finishing, and stress relieving. Workpieces in a wide variety of sizes
and shapes are processed, as are all metals and many nonmetallic materials. Large
quantities of parts can be run in batch or continuous process setups without handling or
fixturing, thus minimizing costs.

Vorschulerziehung in Deutschland

16 Июня 2013, реферат

Alle Erwachsene begegnen den Kindern unterschiedlich. Einige finden sie für Engel, andere – für Dämonen. Viele Leute lieben die Kinder, besonders kleine Kinder. Und fast jeder will einmal sein Nest bauen und Kinder bekommen. Aber einem Kind das Leben zu schenken ist viel leichter als dieses Kind zu erziehen. Also die erste Etappe:
1. Vom Geburt bis Kindergarten oder «Meine Eltern brauchen keinen Schlaf»
Zuerst die Statistik:
Deutschland gehört zu den Ländern mit niedrigem Geburtsniveau. Es gibt nur 9 neugeborene Kinder an 1000 Menschen pro Jahr.
Das durchschnittliche Alter für die Geburt des ersten Kindes ist 30 Jahre.
Auf jede Frau entfällt 1.3 Kind.

Vrubel M.A

01 Июня 2012, контрольная работа

Описание жизни Врубеля.

Wachovia and Others: Trading securities at the speed of Light

01 Октября 2013, реферат

What’s Trading Securities?
Trading securities is the act of buying and selling securities with the intention of making a quick profit. Brokerage firms and investment advisers recommend buying securities for the anticipated long-term appreciation of the company.

Walt Disney

19 Декабря 2010, биография

Работа о знаменитом Волте Диснее. Доступное изложение.

Wassily Leontief

06 Июня 2013, реферат

Wassily Leontief was born on August 5, 1905, in Munich, Germany, the son of Wassily W. Leontief (professor of Economics) and Slata (later Evgenia, called Genya) Leontief (née Becker). W. Leontief, Sr., belonged to a family of old-believermerchants living in St. Petersburg since 1741. Genya Becker belonged to a wealthy Jewish family from Odessa. At 15 in 1921, Wassily, Jr., entered University of Leningrad in present day St. Petersburg. He earned his Learned Economist degree (equivalent to Master of Arts) in 1924 at the age of 19.

Water Pollution

30 Марта 2015, реферат

Water is necessary for life. All organisms contain it, some drink it and some live in it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive, if water contains toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. Water pollution kills large quantity of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing everything in an affected area.

What are biomes?

16 Декабря 2013, реферат

Biomes are regions of the world with similar climate (weather, temperature) animals and plants. There are terrestrial biomes (land) and aquatic biomes, both freshwater and marine.
Would you like to know what the weather is like in different biomes around the world? How about the types of plants and animals that live in these biomes? Here you will find all sorts of information about the world's biomes.

What counts is one hundred friends and not one hundred roubles

19 Декабря 2010, сочинение

I have a lot friends. But my best friend is Nick. We made friends many years ago when we went to one and the same school. Nick is 18 years old. He is a university student. He is going to become a research worker.

What makes a successful negotiator?

24 Марта 2013, сочинение

It is common knowledge that every aspect of our business and personal life requires negotiation. Negotiating skills are not usually part of our formal education, though we use these skills all day, every day. Negotiating can be explained as simply as "working side by side with other to achieve some beneficial result." Luckily, it is a practical skill that can be learned. It doesn’t matter if we run General Motors or our households, we all want to communicate and convince effectively, we all want to be successful negotiators. So no matter what our age or our position in life, if we develop a certain attitude about negotiating, pay attention to honing our skills, then our life will run smoother.

William Shakespeare

27 Сентября 2013, реферат

William Shakespeare (baptised 26 April 1564; died 23 April 1616)[nb 1] was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[1] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".[2][nb 2] His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays,[nb 3] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[3]

William Shakespeare

06 Октября 2013, реферат

Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.