Рефераты по иностранным языкам

My Personal Interpretation of Cases of Adultery in Works of Russian Writers

13 Апреля 2013, творческая работа

Adultery is typical of a weak person. It seems to me that adultery is considered to be an absolutely negative action. Needless to say, that it is just a betrayal, stab in the back and it can not be forgiven. To my mind a person with a strong mind will never be unfaithful to the man, with whom he or she shares the fate.

Actually the theme of adultery is very popular and widespread among writers all over the world. I have tried to recollect some works of Russian writers. And sometimes the author does not give the terrible attitude to adultery, he just leaves the reader an opportunity to judge the situation to the extent of the person’s thoughts. For example, the adultery of Katerina Kabanova in “The Storm” by Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky is very ambiguously and it probably has a mixed reception. Naturally, different people have different opinions, and especially when it is about reading between the lines.

My University

18 Января 2013, аттестационная работа

Работа на тему "Мой университет".
Moscow University named S.U.Vitte is one of the leading Russian higher educational establishments preparing economists, managers, managers on tourism, psychologists, customs brokers, lawyers. The academy has been tracing its history since 1993. This was the Moscow Institute of economy, management and law.

National food in Ukraine

29 Мая 2013, реферат

The Ukrainian food is characterized with large number of components. For example the traditional Ukrainian food – borsch – contains 20 components. The peculiarities have the thermal processing of the products of the dishes. As a rule, there are used several types of thermal processing for the preparing of the food (frying, boiling, stewing, baking). The rules of food processing are strictly held in Ukrainian restaurants, to reach the best taste of the national dishes. The recipes of the Ukrainian cuisine include the number of different fruits and vegetables, as well as meat, poultry, fish, mushrooms and berries. The most common meat product is pork. The meat is present in large amount in first courses, among which the major one is borsch.

National Sports of Great Britain

26 Апреля 2013, реферат

Many kinds of sport originated from England. The English have a proverb, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy". They do not think that play is more important than work; they think that Jack will do his work better if he plays as well. so he is encouraged to do both. Association football, or soccer is one of the most popular games in the British Isles played from late August until the beginning of May. In summer the English national sport is cricket. When the English say: "that's not cricket" it means "that's not fair", "to play the game" means "to be fair".

Necesitatile in constructie a sticlei

05 Февраля 2014, реферат

Cea dintai fabrica de sticla cunoscuta din documente in tara noastra se afla langa Targoviste si apartinea lui Matei Voivod (1650). In Moldova, Grigore Ghica a dat un hrisov pentru infiintarea unei fabrici de sticla in satul Calugara din tinutul Romanului (1740). Documentele scrise atesta si sexistenta unei fabrici de sticla din 1727 in localitatea Belin din Crisana.


18 Июня 2013, доклад

At the present moment English is developing very swiftly and there is so
called «neology blowup». R. Berchfield who worked at compiling a four-
volume supplement to NED says that averagely 800 neologisms appear every
year in Modern English. It has also become a language-giver recently,
especially with the development of computerization.

Netherlands bourgeois revolution

12 Сентября 2013, лекция

Netherlands bourgeois revolution (нидерл. Tachtigjarige Oorlog — "Eighty-year war") — successful revolution of Seventeen provinces in fight for independence of the Spanish Empire. As a result of revolution independence of Seven Connected Provinces was recognized. The areas nowadays known as Belgium and Luxembourg (those from Seventeen provinces which remained under board Gabsburgov), received the name of the Southern Netherlands. Wilhelm Oransky was the first leader of revolution. The Netherlands revolution became one of the first successful splits in Europe and led to emergence of the first modern European republics.

New ideas in aviation

09 Ноября 2013, реферат

Good ideas and the means оf realizing them do not always keep in step. Often one gets ahead of the other. А brilliant concept mау be consigned to the back of а drawer because the technology required to carry it out has not yet been developed. А major technical advance mау be wasted in performing yesterday's jobs а 1ittle bit more easily. А typical example is the use of new aluminium-lithium alloys to reproduce the same airframe components hither to made of conventional alloys. The resulting weight reduction is only marginal compared with what could have been achieved if the parts were totally redesigned to take account of the new material's properties.

New Year

08 Октября 2013, контрольная работа

Folklore holds that Ded Moroz ("Grandfather Frost") is charged with the responsibility for delivering presents on New Year's Eve. He is a large, bearded and grandfatherly man resembling Santa Claus, although he has no saintly identity, nor sleigh nor reindeer. He is sometimes said to be dressed in blue rather than red - this is a point of contention. Either way, he emerges on New Year's Eve with a gargantuan, overflowing sack of gifts and dispenses them to each family. The actual procedure of doing this is not a significant component of the mythology; he doesn't come down the chimney, but it doesn't really matter how he gets into your dwelling. Perhaps through the front door, perhaps through the window - who knows?

New Year celebrations around the world

18 Февраля 2013, сочинение

New Year’s Day is a family holiday for many Russians. Dinner usually starts late on December 31. Traditional meals include Russian salad, herring and sparkling wine. A pre-recorded address by the country’s president appears on TV, listing the achievements of the past year, at 11.55pm (23:55) local time in each of Russia’s time zones. Many people raise a toast to the chiming of the Kremlin clock. The Russian national anthem begins at midnight and people congratulate each other and exchange presents. Some people go out to make a snowman or light fire crackers in their backyards.

Nizhyn Mykola Gogol state university

18 Сентября 2014, реферат

Nizhyn Gogol State University is an academic institution in Ukraine, located in Nizhyn, Chernihiv Oblast. It is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Ukraine. It was originally established as the Nizhyn Lyceum of Prince Bezborodko; since then it has changed its name for several times. Currently, it consists of seven facultie and about 8,000 students study there

Nord pas de calais

09 Ноября 2013, реферат

Le Nord-Pas-de-Calais se trouve tout au nord de la France.La superficie du Nord-Pas-de-Calais est de 12 414 km2, soit2,3 % du territoire français. Sa bordure littorale est importante: 140 km.Cette region a 350 km de frontières avec la Belgique.Elle est située entre le 50ème et le 51ème parallèle, c’est-à-dire la même latitude que Cracovie, Prague, le nord de la Chine, Vancouver.Son faible relief en fait une voie de communication naturelle entre Europe du nord et du sud, en particulier par le seuil de Bapaume.La barrière de la crête de l’Artois, d’à peine 100 mètres de dénivelé, a servi de rivage lors d’invasions marines au Tertiaire .D’autre part, la région est ouverte au détroit le plus fréquenté du monde, le Pas-de-Calais. Sa très proche voisine, la Grande-Bretagne (35 km), lui assure naturellement une place de premier rang dans le transit européen.

Noţiuni generale

12 Мая 2013, реферат

Rolul substanţelor fenolice în formarea calităţii vinurilor roşii
Importanţa compuşilor fenolici pentru calitatea vinurilor este bine cunoscută. Aceşti compuşi contribuie la definirea caracterelor organoleptice, a valorii igienico-alimentare şi mai ales la tipicitatea vinurilor. În plus, prin proprietăţile bactericide şi antioxidante protejează culoarea şi gustul vinurilor, în special a celor roşii.
Compuşii fenolici provin din diferite părţi ale strugurilor şi se extrag în procesul de vinificaţie. Cantitatea şi structura compuşilor fenolici din vin depinde de soiul din care provine şi de tehnicile de elaborare şi conservare a vinului.
Structura compuşilor fenolici variază foarte mult în cursul maturării şi învechirii vinurilor. Macromoleculele fenolice nu se pot studia prin metode clasice de analiză, acestea fiind mai bine adaptate pentru determinarea fenolilor simpli, de aceea modificările survenite în timpul evoluţiei vinului nu sunt prea bine cunoscute.

Old English Literature

06 Января 2014, реферат

What can be known about a unique poem in a unique manuscript, dated around the year 1000 a.d.? What do we know about the circumstances of its composition? Is it literary, oral, or something in-between? What can we never know? This unique poem is “The Poem about Beowulf”.
Beowulf (/beɪ.ɵwʊlf/; in Old English [beo̯wʊlf] or [beəwʊlf], literally "bee wolf" i.e. "bee hunter", a kenning for "bear") is the conventional title of an Old English heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines, set in Scandinavia, commonly cited as one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature.

Oligopoly in the mobile market Ukraine

04 Июня 2013, доклад

Oligopoly is the most prevalent in modern high-tech industries in the computer industry and has the following features:
The market has several sellers;
In oligopoly may be produced as a homogeneous and differentiated products;
Overarching interdependence of firms, which occurs due to the small number of firms in the market;
Large entry barriers in the industry. Barriers to entry in an oligopolistic industry is quite high;
There is a full awareness of market prices and volumes.

Omsk State Medical Academy

27 Сентября 2013, реферат

Russian Federation has always been a leader in world medical education. There are more than 40 medical academies, universities and intuitions.
Omsk State Medical Academy (OSMA) was founded as the Medical Faculty of Siberian Institute of Veterinary and Zoology in 1920; the faculty was reorganized into the West-Siberian State Medical Institute in 1921. It was renamed into Omsk State Medical Institute in 1925 and into Omsk State Medical Academy in 1994. Now more than 40 000 graduates of OSMA are working as doctors in our country and abroad. At the moment over 4500 students are studying at 5 faculties: Medical, Pediatric, Stomatological, Pharmaceutical and the Faculty of Preventive Medicine.

One member and two member sentences

25 Марта 2013, контрольная работа

The components of a sentence are clauses. A clause typically contains at least a subject noun phrase and a finite verb. While the subject is usually a noun phrase, other kinds of phrases (such as gerund phrases) work as well, and some languages allow subjects to be omitted. There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate (dependent). An independent clause demonstrates a complete thought; it is a complete sentence: for example, I am sad. A subordinate clause is not a complete sentence: for example, because I have no friends. See also copula for the consequences of the verb to be on the theory of sentence structure.

Our family is not large

23 Ноября 2013, реферат

My name is Olga. I am seventeen. I am a school leaver. My younger brother is ten. He is a pupil of the fifth form. He looks like our father. He has brown eyes, short straight hair. He is tall and thin. As for me everybody says I look like my mother. I have the same blue eyes, a snub nose, fair curly hair. I am not tall and 1 am not thin. I am an ordinary girl of 17.

Outstanding people

02 Сентября 2012, творческая работа

Music. What's that? For some people it`s only a background in life. But for others, like me, music is Life. It`s something I cant live without. So, out standing people for me are musicians. I'm going to tell you about greatest of them.

Perfekt – сложная форма прошедшего времени.

09 Ноября 2013, реферат

HABEN: Все переходные глаголы (глаголы, требующие после себя дополнения в Akkusativ): Er hat einen Brief geschrieben.
Возвратные глаголы (с возвратным местоимением sich): Wir haben uns gut erholt.
Модальные глаголы: Sie hat es gewollt.
Вспомогательный глагол haben: Wir haben Zeit gеhabt.
Безличные глаголы: Es hat gedonnert (Гремел гром).
Непереходные глаголы, обозначающие спокойное состояние (продолжительное действие): schlafen, liegen, stehen u. a.

Personal computer

30 Апреля 2013, реферат

A personal computer (PC) is any computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator.

Today a PC may be a desktop computer, a laptop computer or a tablet computer. The most common operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux, while the most common microprocessors are x86-compatible CPUs, ARM architecture CPUs and PowerPC CPUs. Software applications for personal computers include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, games, and a myriad of personal productivity and special-purpose software. Modern personal computers often have high-speed or dial-up connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources.

Persönlichkeit & rolle

26 Октября 2013, контрольная работа

Persönlichkeitstraining? Was versteht man denn darunter genau – und was ist "Persönlichkeit" überhaupt? Menschen lassen sich grundlegend und ganz bestimmt nicht gern "verbiegen". Bewusst beeinflussen und verändern kann man im Geschäfts- und anderen "Normal"-Leben seine Rolle, am wenigsten seine Persönlichkeit. Aber das bedeutet nicht, dass man sein Verhalten nicht ändern könnte. Man muss nur die Spielregeln kennen. Gerade im Verkauf.

Phonetic and lexical peculiarities of the American English

26 Мая 2013, реферат

Every language allows different kinds of variations: geographical or territorial, perhaps the most obvious, stylistic, the difference between the written and the spoken form of the standard national language and others. English is the national language of England proper, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and some provinces of Canada. It is the official language of Wales, Scotland, in Gibraltar and on the island of Malta. Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national language and local dialects. Variants of a language are regional varieties of a standard literary language characterized by some minor peculiarities in the sound system, vocabulary and grammar and by their own literary norms.

Phonetic features of English in Ireland

18 Сентября 2013, курсовая работа

The urgency of the problem. One of the major contemporary issues of linguistics is the problem of development of the language, its causes and forms, as well as the symbiosis of language in terms of forced intercourse, which resulted in the formation of other languages ​​with a simplified grammar, phonetics and spelling, called – Standard Scottish English (SSE).
Perspective of the study. The phenomenon of language SSE to be active in the study of philology and psychology, only recently, as previously followed a secured status of "second-class languages. In spite of a sufficient number of papers on the subject, the status of SSE and its place in the world's languages ​​remain quite uncertain, and the matter remains little developed in both theoretical and practical terms.

Phonetik als Teilgebiet der Sprachwissenschaft

29 Мая 2013, лекция

Beziehungen der Phonetik zu anderen Wissenschaften Die Phonetik als Wissenschaft wurde und wird ihrem Wesen und Status nach unterschiedlich beurteilt und im System der Wissenschaften dementsprechend unterschiedlich eingestuft. Zwei Eckpunkte (Extrempunkte) sind erkennbar, zwischen denen sich alle anderen Bewertungen (mit unterschiedlicher Gewichtung) bewegen. VON ESSEN (1966: 1) hält die phonatorischen Erscheinungen für Naturvorgänge, und erklärt sie zum Gegenstand der Phonetik. Aus diesem Grund rechnet er die Phonetik zu den Naturwissenschaften. PÉTURSSON & NEPPERT (1991: 14) halten die Phonetik hingegen für eine sprachwissenschaftliche Disziplin.


03 Февраля 2013, лекция

Phraseological unit / set expression / idiom – a complex word-equivalent in which the globality of nomination reigns supreme over the formal separability of elements. It is reproduced in speech. – See Idiom proper
Typology of ph.us. (according to the degree of motivation):
- unities, phraseological (q.v.);
- combinations, phraseological (q.v.);
- fusions, phraseological (q.v.).

Places of Interest in Moscow

15 Октября 2013, доклад

Moscow is the biggest city of Russia and its capital. The city is situated on the Moskva River and was found more than 800 years ago. Nowadays, Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It houses many attractive parks and squares, great architectural wonders and countless places of interest. Special attention is always put to the city center, as there are the most famous sights. Among them, the outstanding Kremlin and the Red Square, the Bolshoi and the Maly Theaters, Saint Basil's Cathedral, the Historical Museum, the Armoury Chamber and many others

Planned economy

05 Ноября 2012, доклад

This article is about an economic system controlled or directed by the state. For proposed economic systems that employs "participatory" or democratic planning,
Planned economy (or command economy) is an economic system in which the state directs the economy. It is an economic system in which the central government controls industry such that it makes major decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods and services. Its most extensive form is referred to as a command economy, centrally planned economy, or command and control economy.

Political Background

13 Декабря 2013, реферат

The separation of powers which existed under the Soviet constitution was essentially a myth. A Russian accurately characterized the relationships that existed between party, state and society as, ...The state absorbed the society, the Party absorbed the state, and the Party appartchiks, the nomenclature under the totalitarian leadership of the Secretary-General absorbed the Party." Both legislative and judicial branches served as rubber stamps" to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet which unlike the Supreme Soviet itself was constantly in session. The development of political reform in the late 1980s weakened the party's control over the reigns of power.

Positive and negative aspects of using computers

30 Декабря 2013, сочинение

There is no doubt that computers reduce the time you spend on searching information. If you have a computer and the internet is available you have more opportunities to get information. Also you can read online books, have access to the best libraries of the world and of course the computer is an integral part of modern education. In the current world the computer keeps track of our life because the computer is very convenient. However the frequent using of the computer gives us some problems.