Мейозис. Спроба класифікації

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Тропи посідають значне місце в художньому тексті. Ми користуємося ними, створюємо їх не помітно для себе. Вже в часи Цицерона та Квінтіліана тривали нескінченні суперечки між граматистами і філософами про різновиди, ґатунки, кількість і взаємну залежність тропів. Суперечки продовжуються й понині, зумовлені багатоаспектністю такого феномену, як тропи. Тропи кількості (мейозис, гіпербола, літота) безперечно, відіграють важливу роль у художній літературі, збагачуючи і урізноманітнюючи її. Розглянемо більш дослідно, що таке мейозис
Вивченням тропів кількості, а саме гіперболи та мейозису, займалися такі вчені як Ю. М. Скрєбньов, О. М. Мороховський.
Першим мейозис в своїй класифікації згадує Квінтіліан, за ним прийнято визнавати такі тропи (за грецькими назвами): метафора, гіпербола, мейозис, літота та інші [6, 318 с.]

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S.V. Iliinskyi in his encyclopedia: ‘‘Neuro-linguistic programming’’ explained the term as ‘‘ Meiosis - trails, impairing properties of an object, process, phenomenon, for example’’. Tolerable level’’ (instead of ‘‘passable’’ ), ‘‘ it will fly you a lot of money’’, ‘‘ is poor’’ (instead of  ‘‘ bad’’), ‘‘ a decent game of football’’ (instead of  ‘‘good’’), etc. In M. irony there, knowingly inaccurate reflection of the real state of affairs [11]’’.

Y.I. Kovaliv defines the term as follows: ‘‘ Meiosis - trope, which is the manifestation of belittling the importance of certain features , events, current events , the number of subjects. It is used to avoid inflated estimates (complain instead of good), emphasizing the humility of the speaker when using deminutyviv, typical for folklore, prose Vovchka M. , A. Teslenka , expressive self-abasement , widespread in medieval literature (‘‘I am not reduce eye you’’ , etc. ) as mitigation categorical assessment using latent irony or euphemism [5, 23 p.]’’.

А. A. Galich defines meiosis as opposed to hyperbole, ‘‘ the essence of which lies in the deliberate understatement size, number of items, course of action [2, 90 p. ]’’.

So meiosis is a logical and psychological opposite to hyperbole, its essence is true understatement object properties, which increases the expressivity of expression [7, 63 p.].

Along with a variety of classifications must determine the classification meiosis by means of its creation, first of all it is - two types of meiosis: Language and Art (individual author) meiosis. Language meiosis - independent lexical items rather freely enter into semantic links, art meyozys lacks the lexical independence, it is always contextual. When meiosis deployed,  interacts with other tropes, such as metaphor, hyperbole or epithet.

Language meyozys reflects the experience of the speaker and his individual view of the world we perceive and reproduce in the language of this trope, often not realizing that familiar words are figurative sense, found in folklore: thin as solomyka; girl look like a makovku. The image of the hero of folk tales '' Kotigoroshko`` built on meiosis. More common in live broadcasting: small as a mouse, there was little problem, something I do not really (when a person is very ill).

Art meyozys (individual author) created by a poet or a writer and used in fiction for expression and imagery. Often art is meyozys - belittling some features by comparison: ‘‘This universe - the lake and the island world in it [ 4, 67 p. ]’’, Or by using the diminutive suffix: ‘‘... blond in white guise, a neck sweater on Do the hook [ 4, 42 p. ]’’ , ‘‘Trampled milkweed stalks, I'll forgive [4, 76 p. ]’’.

Display angle vision outlook author or narrator's attitude or character of nature, city, men, ‘‘And I fit into the world palette in one palette. In a dozen colors [ 4, 3 p. ]’’, ‘‘Small room in which they sat, and through the reeking smoke-filled coffee cups are not enough, they let in a circle first coffee, then another, pots pass from hand to hand ... [3, 27 p.]’’.

The story of Welsh writer Dylan Thomas ‘‘The Orchards’’ Local observers - a roof. The main character, a writer, looks at the city from the top of the roof, and the city sees him tiny toy: ‘‘Brave in his desolation, he scrambled to the edge of the slate, there to stand perilously over the tiny traffic and the lights of the street signals. The toy of the town was at his feet. On went the marzipan cars, changing gear, applying brake, over the nursery carpets into a child's hands. It was an image of an infant city that threw his pulses into confusion [9, с. 75]’’.

One of meiotic tropes used by the author in his work on the translation of a fragment of the story is meiotic epithet : nursery carpets - rugs for children ; infant city - playground ; tiny traffic - the tiny car with the subject of specifically: track traffic - cars. Another trope used - with the addition of meiotic metaphor : marzipan cars - cars , the size of the cake. Another method of translation - replacing the track and saving the image ( meiotic epithet / meiotic metaphor / meiotic epithet / metaphor ): the toy of the town was at his feet - toy town was directly under his feet.

According to the translation, we used a full translation of meiotic epithet, a full translation of meiotic epithet of the metaphor of the specification of the subject track full of meiotic translation of metaphor by adding, replacing the track and saving the image.

Consider another passage from a story by J. Thomas ‘‘One Warm Saturday’’, which is also a result view from the top of the cafe, located high above the sea. ‘‘ Through the open bay-window, across the useless railway covered with sand, he saw the black dots of bathers, the stunted huts, the jumping dwarfs round the Punch and Judy, and tiny religious circle. [10, c. 221]’’. One of the methods use meiosis in the story is a complete translation into drafts - dwarfs, and a complete translation of meiotic epithet and tiny religious circle - tiny religious circle. Also find a replacement track and image - dots of bathers - black, like ants swimmers replacement metaphor for meiotic comparison.

Consequently, we must determine the classification meiosis by means of its creation, it is - meyozysu two types: linguistic and artistic or individual author meiosis. It interacts with other tropes, such as metaphor, hyperbole and epithet. I should say that in modern literature, unlike fairy tales and folklore, meyozys used less. Often meiosis used in stories or poems, which reduce the size of the object (human nature of things) depends on the position of the viewer.



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