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This qualification paper is dedicated to the problem of teaching reading at the 6th form stylistics, especially to the types of methods of teaching foreign language.
The subject of the qualification work is to develop the usage of methods of teaching reading in our educational system.
The object of the qualification paper is to study main methods of teaching reading and also the useful sides of these methods for the young pupils.
The actuality of the qualification paper is determined teaching reading with the help of exercises at the 6 form.
CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL BASIS OF TEACHING READING
1.1. Approaches to teaching reading skills ……………………………..
1.2. Main methods of teaching foreign language………………………..
CHAPTER II. READING AS AN AIM AND A MEANS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
2.1 The content of teaching reading. …………………..……………….. 27
2.2. Some difficulties pupils have in learning to read in the English language. ………………………………..……………………………………..34
2.3. How to teach reading…...……………………………………………..38
CHAPTER III. OVERCOMING THE SCARCITY AT THE TEACHING READING
3.1. Methods of Teaching Reading to Learners
3.2. Approaches to Correcting Mistakes………………………………….41
3.2. Practical works for the 6th form at school……..50
THE LIST OF USED LITERATURE……………………………………..67
At the very beginning, a pupil is compelled to look at each printed letter separately in order to be sure of its shape. S/He often sees words and not sense units. For instance, s/he reads: The book is on the desk and not (The book is) (on the desk) [17; 181].
Of particular interest here is the question ‘how do fluent readers recognize words? ’ It is now known that fluent readers do not process words as ‘wholes’. In normal reading, they process individual letters during each fixation. They make use of knowledge of spelling patterns, word patterns and the constraints of syntax and semantics to produce a phonetic version of the text (though this is usually produced after, rather than before, words have been recognized) [11; 3]. Some scholars also suggest six word recognition strategies:
Context clues. Figuring out what the word is by looking at what makes sense in the sentence.
PSR/morphemic analysis. Figuring out what the word is by looking at the prefix, suffix, or root word.
Word analysis/word families. Figuring out what the word is by looking at word families or parts of the word you recognize.
Ask a friend. Turn to a friend and say, “What’s this word? ”
Skip the word. If you are still creating meaning, why stop the process to figure out a word?
Phonics. Using minimal letter cues in combination with context clues to figure out what the word is [12; 18].
It is an easy and natural direct method that facilitates oral work. The disadvantage of this method is that it encourages the learner the habit of reading one word at a time. All words cannot be taught by using pictures. There are abstract words, full meaning of which cannot be understood through single, separate words. Moreover, it ignores spelling [22; 7].
The phrase method lies midway between the word method and the sentence method. It helps in extending the eye span. Phrases can be presented with more interesting material aids. The teacher prepares a list of phrases and writes one phrase on the blackboard. He asks the pupils to look at the phrase attentively. The teacher reads the phrase and pupils repeat it several times. New phrases are compared with the phrases already taught. It has all the limitations of the word method. It places emphasis on meaning rather than reading [22; 7].
The most difficult thing in learning to read is to get information from a sentence or a paragraph on the basis of the knowledge of structural signals and not only the meaning of words. Pupils often ignore grammar and try to understand what they read relying on their knowledge of autonomous words. And, of course, they often fail, e. g., the sentence "He was asked to help the old woman" is understood as "Він попросив допомогти старшій жінці", in which the word he becomes the subject and is not the object of the action. [17; 181].
In this method the whole sentence is the minimum meaningful unit. It is also a “look and say method”. This method is used in situational teaching. Pupils learn words and letters of the alphabet afterwards. Flash cards are used. The flash card contains the whole sentence. The method is useful for continuous reading. Words and sentences should be familiar to the children. The sentence method can be used effectively only when the children are already able to speak the language. The procedure of this method is sentence - >phrase->words->letters [22; 7]. The sentence method deals with the sentences as units of approach in teaching reading. The teacher can develop pupils' ability to read sentences with correct intonation. Later the sentence is split up into words. It facilitates speaking and is natural as well as psychological. It develops the eye span and helps in self learning. It makes use of visual aids. However, readers find it difficult to read a sentence without the knowledge of words and letters. Thus, it is rather a time consuming method [22; 7].
The story method is an advanced method over the sentence method. It creates interest among the children. It gives the complete unit of thought. The teacher tells the story in four or five sentences illustrated through pictures. The children first memorize the story and then read it. The limitations of this method consist in failing to develop the habit of reading accurately and putting a heavy load on the memory of the pupil [22; 8]. Special attention is given to intonation since it is of great importance to the actual division of sentences, to stressing the logical predicate in them. (Marking the text occasionally may be helpful. [17; 184].
Teachers should not forget to perform before-reading-practices:
If pupils can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced [3; 5]. Word recognition and decoding skills are necessary, though not sufficient for reading comprehension. According to the National Reading Panel, systematic and explicit decoding instruction improves pupils’ word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension. Fluent reading in the primary grades is related to reading comprehension [3; 6].
Selection of words for decoding instruction:
1. Use the list of difficult to read words provided in your program.
2. If list of words is not provided or inadequate for your pupils, preview the passage selecting the difficult to read words.
3. Divide the difficult to pronounce words into two categories for instructional purposes:
Vocabulary is related to reading comprehension. If pupils understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced [3; 13-14]. Gap in word knowledge persists though the elementary years. Moreover, the vocabulary gap between struggling readers and proficient readers grows each year [3; 17].
Zimmermann and Hutchins identify seven reading comprehension strategies:
1. activating or building background knowledge;
2. using sensory images;
3. questioning 4. making predictions and inferences;
5. determining main ideas 6. using fix-up options;
7. synthesizing [14; 11].
Reading in chorus, reading in groups in imitation of the teacher which is practiced in schools forms. The result is that pupils can sound the text but they cannot read. The teacher should observe the rule "Never read words, phrases, sentences by yourself. Give your pupils a chance to read them." For instance, in presenting the words and among them those which are read according to the rule the teacher should make once pupils read these words first. This rule is often violated in school. It is the teacher who first reads a word, a column of words, a sentence, a text and pupils just repeat after the teacher [17; 182].
In teaching pupils to read the teacher must do once best to prevent mistakes. Teachers may however, be certain that in spite of much work done by them, pupils will make mistakes in reading. The question is who corrects their mistakes, how they should be corrected, when they must be corrected.
The opinion is that the pupil who has made a mistake must try to correct it himself/herself. If s/he cannot do it, his/her classmates correct his/her mistake. If they cannot do so the teacher corrects the mistake. The following techniques may be suggested:
1. The teacher writes a word (e. g., black) on the black board. S/He underlines ck in it and asks the pupil to say what sound these two letters convey. If the pupil cannot answer the question, the teacher asks some of his/her classmates. They help the pupil to correct his/her mistake and s/he reads the word.
2. One of the pupils asks: What is the English for „чорний"? If the pupil repeats the mistake, the "corrector" pronounces the word properly and explains the rule the pupil has forgotten. The pupil now reads the word correctly.
3. The teacher or one of the pupils says: Find the word „чорний" and read it. The pupil finds the word and reads it either without any mistake if his/her first mistake was due to his/her carelessness, or s/he repeats the mistake. The teacher then tells him/her to recollect the rule and read the word correctly.
4. The teacher corrects the mistake himself/herself. The pupil reads the word correctly. The teacher asks the pupil to explain to the class how to read ck. The teacher tells the pupil to write the word black and underline ck. Then s/he says how the word is read.
There are some other ways of correcting pupils' mistakes. The teacher should use them reasonably and choose the one most suitable for the case.
Another question arises: whether teachers should correct a mistake in the process of reading a passage or after finishing it. Both ways are possible. The mistake should be corrected at once while the pupil reads the text if s/he has made it in a word which will occur two or more times in the text. If the word does not appear again, it is better to let the pupil read the paragraph to the end. Then the mistake is corrected. A teacher should always be on the alert for the pupils' mistakes, allow their reading and mark their mistakes in pencil [17; 185-186].
In teaching pupils to read the teacher must do his best to prevent mistakes. We may, however, be certain that in spite of much work done by the teacher, pupils will make some mistakes in reading at the foreign language. The question is who corrects their mistakes in reading, how they should be corrected, when they must be corrected.
Our opinion is that the pupil who has made a mistake must try to correct it himself. If he or she can not do it, his or her classmates correct his or her сlassmates correct his or her mistake. If they can not do it so the teacher corrects the mistake. The following techniques may be suggested:
There are some other ways of correcting pupils’ mistakes. The teacher should use them reasonably and choose the one most suitable for the case.
Another question arises: whether we should correct a mistake in the process of reading a passage or after finishing it. Both ways are possible. The mistake should be corrected at once while the pupil reads the text if he has made it in a word which will occur two or more times in the text. If the word does not appear again, it is better to let the pupil read the paragraph to the end. Then the mistake is corrected.
A teacher should always be on the alert for the pupils’ mistakes, follow their reading and mark their mistakes in pencil.
Silent reading. In learning to read pupils widen their eyespan. They can see more than a word, phrase, a sentence. The eye can move faster than the reader is able to pronounce what he sees. Thus reading aloud becomes an obstacle for perception. It hinders the pupil’s comprehension of the text. It is necessary that the pupil should read silently. Special exercises may be suggested to develop pupils’ skills in silent reading. For instance, ,, Look and say, read and look up.”
To perform this type of exercises pupils should read a sentence silently, grasp it, and reproduce it without looking into the text. At first they perform such exercises slowly. Gradually the teacher limits the time for the pupils’ doing the exercises. It makes them read faster and faster. All this lead to widening their eyespan.
Teaching silent reading is closely connected with two problems:
Pupils should be taught how to find the logical predicate in a sentence. The teacher may ask his pupils to read a text silently and find the words conveying the new information in the text according to their position. There are some signals which may be helpful in this respect. These are – the Passive Voice ( The doctor was sent for ); the indefinite article ( A man came up to me); the construction ,, It is/was ” ( It was not difficult for him to finish his work in time ), etc. Grammar and lexical analyses help pupils to assimilate structural words, to determine the meaning of a word proceeding from its position in the sentence, to find the meanings of unfamiliar words, and those which seem to be familiar but do not correspond to the structure of the sentence ( e.g., I saw him book a ticket ). Pupils’ poor comprehension often results from their poor knowledge of grammar ( syntax in particular ).
The teacher should instruct pupils how to work with a dictionary and a reference book so that they can overcome some difficulties independently. Although in school the teacher often applies grammar and lexical analyses, however, he often does it not with the aim of the ,, actual division ” or parsing of the sentence and better comprehension of the sentence or of the text, but with the aim of checking or revision of his pupils’ knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. This does not mean that the teacher should avoid grammar and vocabulary analyses for revision. However, much more attention should be given to teaching pupils how to carry out the actual division of sentences to get information from the text. Here are a few examples of structural – information exercises.
E. g., I have a bag. The bag is black.
To read a text the pupil must possess the ability to grasp the contents of the text. The pupil is to be taught to compare, to contrast, to guess, and to forsee events.
One of the most frequently used methods by which children attack new words is through the use of picture clues.
The use of context clues is another word – getting technique. The pupil discovers what a new word is when that particular word is needed to complete the meaning of the sentence.
In teaching pupils to read much attention should be given to the development of their ability to guess. One of the best ways to develop this skill is to give the pupil the text for acquaintance either during the lesson or as his homework. He can read it again and again.” Before questions” may be helpful. They direct the pupil’s thought when he reads the text. It the work is done during the lesson ,the teacher can direct his pupils in guessing new words. The teacher instructs pupils how to get information from the text. Semantic- communicative exercises are recommended They are all connected with silent reading. They may be:
Find in what words he expresses his attitude ( Fiction ).
The three types of exercises are distributed differently depending on the stage of teaching. In the 5 – 6th forms graphemic – phonemic and structural – information exercises should prevail. In the 7 – 10th forms structural – information and semantic – communicative must be mostly used; the latter should prevail.
Pupils perform graphemic – phonemic exercises reading them aloud. The teacher uses individual, group, and full class reading. He checks the pupil’s reading by making him read aloud.
Pupils perform structural – information exercises by reading them aloud and silently. The teacher uses individual, group, and full class reading when pupils read sentences, paraghraphs of the text aloud, and when the aim is to teach pupils correct intonation in connection with the actual division of sentences. He checks the pupil’s reading asking him to read aloud.
The teacher uses mass reading when pupils read sentences, paragraphs of the text silently; the objective may be different: either to widen their eyespan or to find new information. The teacher checks the pupil’s silent reading by asking him to reproduce a sentence or a clause; through the pupil’s interpreting the text; by utilizing true – and – false statements, questions and answers, and, finally, translation.
Pupils perform semantic – communicative exercises reading the text silently. If the work is done during the lesson the teacher uses mass reading. He checks his pupils’ comprehension by asking the pupils individually. The techniques the teacher uses to check pupil’s ability to get information from the text may be different. The choice depends on the stage of teaching; on the material used; on pupils’ progress.
In the junior stage the following techniques may be suggested:
Some of the assignments may be done in writing.
In the intermediate and senior stages the following techniques may be recommended.
The choice depends on the material used.
If the text is easy, i.e., if it does not contain unfamiliar words and grammar items ( as is the case in the junior form ) the teacher uses those techniques which are connected with speaking, with the active use of vocabulary and sentence patterns. Similar techniques may be used in intermediate and senior stages if the text is not difficult for the class. The teacher asks his pupils a few questions to test their understanding. The interrogation should be carried out briskly. The teacher passes from pupil to pupil without waiting if a particular pupil has not got his answer ready. For the most profitable results of this work speed is essential. It ensures that all get a chance to answer. With books open one of the pupils asks a question or a number of questions and another answers. The teacher asks the pupils to retell the text. One pupil begins retelling the text, another continues. Each pupil says a few sentences. The teacher asks the first group of pupils to be ready to say everything they know about X, the second group – everything they know about J, the third group – about Y, and so on. The teacher arranges a discussion on the text read by pupils in class or at home.