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The development of the market economy impossible without competition, free enterprise, depending on the timely and proper manager solutions, knowledge of the mechanisms of capital flow and labour, makes the importance of the managers extremely high. Managing cannot exist without using theories like Maslow hierarchy theory of needs.
The development of the market economy impossible without competition, free enterprise, depending on the timely and proper manager solutions, knowledge of the mechanisms of capital flow and labour, makes the importance of the managers extremely high. Managing cannot exist without using theories like Maslow hierarchy theory of needs. This theory provides good statements about achieving goals and different levels by employees as well as some weak points that include individualistic nature of this theory and problem with downward move. And according to this, there is appearing question, does this hierarchy works for most of the Asian countries, especially China.
Maslow's theory has made a vital contribution to the understanding that underlies the motivation of people to work. The leaders of various ranks have come to realize that the motivation of people is determined by a wide spectrum of their needs. To motivate individual, the manager must give him the opportunity to satisfy his critical needs through such a course of action that promotes achieving the objectives of the organization. Not long ago, the leaders can motivate subordinates almost exclusively by economic incentives, as determined by the behavior of people, mainly the needs of their lower levels. Today the situation has changed. Due to higher wages and social benefits, even the people at the lower levels of the hierarchy organization, are at relatively high levels of Maslow's hierarchy.
Maslow stated that the needs of the lower levels needed to meet demand and, therefore, affect the behavior of a person before the motivation will affect the needs of a higher level. According to Kuznecova (2005), if the social needs of the employee is not satisfied, then comes the frustration (state the unpleasant emotional stress caused by a temporary or permanent inability to meet a need), which manifests itself in aggressive feelings and anger. An employee, for example, can switch their energy on the active work of a trade union, political activities, etc. The administrator needs to know that the social needs of higher order can act already in the early stages of the hierarchy, before the lower needs will be met by one hundred percent. Even the hungry people rise up against social and political constraints. For some people, the level of aspiration may be permanently suppressed or reduced. But some of the scientists are argued that Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has some significant limitations.
Hofstede (1984) argued that the most important limitation of this theory is that it is suitable almost just for individualistic societies. As stated by Gambrel (2003), Maslow conducted his hierarchy of needs from an individualistic point of view, because of his origins in United States. In individualistic countries values are usually more self-centered, particularly focused on self-development and self-actualization. But in collectivistic society employee tend to be accepted by community and these values are outweighing needs for freedom and individuality. Moreover Nevis (1983) told that it should be better to change the Maslow’s Pyramid of needs for China in the way of removing “self-esteem” needs (reputation, independence, achievement and prestige) because for the most of Chinese belongingness is more appropriate rather than individual esteem. On the other hand there is an issue that employees not really needed to be affected by managers in achieving every needs they have. Some of the needs, especially higher level needs, can be satisfy by employees in the places them visiting out of work time, which means it can be satisfied by private life (Robinson, 2004). Another issue is that behavior and desires of people are enormously differ thru individuals. For one people as sportsmen, musicians and actors, job is usually turn hierarchy upside down, because this kind of people are getting pleasure from their working process itself (Medvedev, 1996). Similarly, the needs of people affected by: education, social class, age, and many other indirect factors.
Finally, it can be stated that Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory is seems to be quiet effective to basically evaluate needs and the way of achieving it, in countries with individualistic pattern of behavior. But for countries with collectivistic model of behavior it may be used with some weighty changes within structure and some statements of theory. The matter it that people are different all over the world and their needs and value of satisfaction them is diverse so people cannot make the research of employee motivation based only on one or some nations but should do global research of all peoples and suggest the theory which would be relevant to everyone. (746)