Kazakh Economical University named
Performed by:Akhmetova A.(A-142)
Checked by:Nurmagambetova G.
The five generations of computers
- Computers are such an integral part of our
everyday life now most people take them and what they have added to
life totally for granted. Even more so the generation who have grown
from infancy within the global desktop and laptop revolution since the
- The history of the computer goes back several
decades however and there are five definable generations of computers.
Each generation is defined by a significant technological development
that changes fundamentally how computers operate – leading to more compact, less
expensive, but more powerful, efficient and robust machines.
- The period of first generation was 1946-1959.
- First generation of computer started with using vacuum
tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for CPU(Central
Processing Unit). These tubes like electric bulbs produced a lot of
heat and were prone to frequent fusing of the installations, therefore,
were very expensive and could be afforded only by very large organisations.
- In this generation mainly batch processing operating
system were used. In this generation Punched cards, Paper tape, Magnetic
tape Input & Output device were used.
- The period of second generation was 1959-1965.
- This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power,
more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation
machines made of vaccum tubes.In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary
memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.
- In this generation assembly language and high level programming language
like FORTRAN, COBOL were used.
- The period of third generation was 1965-1971.
- The third generation of computer is marked by the use of Integrated
Circuits (IC's) in place of transistors.A single I.C has many transistors, resistors and capacitors
along with the associated circuitry.The I.C was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size,
reliable and efficient.
- In this generation Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming
Operating System were used.
- High level language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC,
ALGOL-68 etc.) were used during this generation.
- The period of Fourth Generation was 1971-1980.
- The fourth generation of computers is marked by the use of Very Large
Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other
circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made
it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth Generation
computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As
a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution.
- In this generation Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed
Operating System were used.
- All the Higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE etc. were used
in this generation.
- The period of Fifth Generation is 1980-till date.
- In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large
Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor
chips having ten million electronic components.
- This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial
- AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets means
and method of making computers think like human beings.
- All the Higher level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc. are used in this generation.