A society, or a human society, is a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social
territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant
cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns
of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships
among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups.
Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not
otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social
(common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found
A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their
own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes
referred to as asubculture, a term used extensively within criminology.
More broadly, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals. Members of a society
may be from different ethnic groups. A society can be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; or a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political,
patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may even, though
more by means of metaphor, refer to a social organism such as an ant colonyor any cooperative aggregate such as, for example, in some formulations of artificial intelligence.
Politics (from Greek: politikos, meaning "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice
and theory of influencing other people on a civic or individual level.
More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state. A variety of methods are employed in politics, which include promoting
one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social
levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level.
A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a
given society. History of political thought can
be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and
the works of Confucius.
Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship
between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose
government officials and make decisions about public policy".
Kinds of dictatorship
A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic or authoritarian form of government in which a government is ruled by either an individual:
a dictator, or an authoritarian party, as in
an oligarchy. It has three possible meanings:
The most general term is despotism, a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. That entity may
be an individual, as in an autocracy, or it may be a group, as in an oligarchy. Despotism can mean tyranny (dominance through threat of punishment and violence), or absolutism; or dictatorship (a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute
dictator, not restricted by a constitution, laws or opposition, etc.). Dictatorship may take the form of authoritarianism or totalitarianism.
Dictatorship is defined by Merriam-Webster as 'a form of government in which absolute power is concentrated in
a dictator or a small clique' or 'a government organisation or group
in which absolute power is so concentrated', whereas democracy, with which the concept of dictatorship is often compared, is defined
by most people as a form of government where those who govern are selected
through contested elections. Authoritarian dictatorships are those where
there is little political mobilization and "a small group exercises
power within formally ill-defined limits but actually quite predictable
ones". Totalitarian dictatorships involve a "single party led by a single
powerful individual with a powerful secret police and a highly developed
ideology." Here, the government has "total control of mass
communications and social and economic organizations". Hannah Arendtlabelled totalitarianism a new and extreme form of dictatorship involving
"atomized, isolated individuals" in which ideology plays a
leading role in defining how the entire society should be organised. Juan Linz argues that the distinction between an authoritarian regime and a
totalitarian one is that while an authoritarian one seeks to suffocate
politics and political mobilization (depoliticization), a totalitarian
one seeks to control politics and political mobilization.
Dictatorships may be classified in a number of ways,
"arbitrator" and "ruler" types
may be distinguished; arbitrator regimes are professional, civilian-oriented,
willing to give up power once problems have been resolved, and support
the existing social order; "ruler" types view civilians as
incompetent and have no intention of returning power to them, are politically
organised, and have a coherent ideology
"weak" and "strong" versions
may be distinguished; in weak single-party states, "at least one
other actor eclipses the role of the party (like a single individual,
the military, or the president)." Joseph Stalin era in Soviet Union  and Mao Zedong era in China can be given as example.
Dictators may attain power in a number of ways.
Family dictatorship - inheriting power through family ties
Military dictatorship - through military force or coup d'etat. In Latin America, military dictatorships were often
ruled by committees known as military juntas.
Constitutional dictatorship - dictatorial powers provided for by constitutional
means (often as a proviso in case of emergency)
Self-coup - by suspending existing democratic mechanisms after
attaining office by constitutional means.
A stable dictatorship is a dictatorship that is able to remain in power for
long periods. The stable dictatorship theory concerning the Soviet Union held that after the succession crisis
following Joseph Stalin's death, the victorious leader assumed
the status of a Stalinist dictator without Stalin's terror apparatus. Chile andParaguay were considered to be stable dictatorships
in the 1970s. It has been argued that stable dictatorships
behave differently than unstable dictatorships. For instance, Maria
Brouwer opines that "expansionary policies can fail and undermine the
authority of the leader. Stable dictators, would therefore, be inclined
to refrain from military aggression. This applies to imperial China, Byzantium and Japan, which refrained from expanding
their empire at some point in time. Emerging dictators, by contrast,
want to win the people’s support by promising them riches from appropriating
domestic or foreign wealth. They have not much to lose from failure,
whereas success could elevate them to positions of wealth and power."
France is a republic; the institutions
of governance of France are defined by theConstitution, more specifically
by the current constitution, being that of the Fifth Republic. The Constitution
has been modified several times since the start of the Fifth Republic,
most recently in July 2008, when the French "Congress" (A
joint convention of the two chambers of Parliament) approved - by 1
vote over the 60% majority required - constitutional changes proposed by President Sarkozy.
The Fifth Republic: The fifth republic
was established in 1958, and was largely the work of General de Gaulle
- its first president, and Michel Debré his prime minister. It has
been amended 17 times. Though the French constitution is parliamentary,
it gave relatively extensive powers to the executive (President and
Ministers) compared to other western democracies.
The executive branch:
The head of state and head of the
executive is the President, elected by universal suffrage. Since May
2012, France's president is François Hollande. Originally, a president
of the Fifth Republic was elected for a 7-year term (le septennat), renewable
any number of times. Since 2002 the President has been elected for a
5-year term (le quinquennat). Since
the passing of the 2008 Constitutional reform, the maximum number of
terms a president can serve has been limited to two.
The President, who is also supreme
commander of the military, determines policy with the aid of his Council
of Ministers (Conseil des ministres).
The residence of the President of the French Republic is the Elysée
Palace (le palais de l'Elysée) in
The President appoints a prime minister (currently
- 2012 - Jean-Marc Ayrault) , who forms a government. The residence of
the French Prime Minister is at Matignon House (l'Hôtel Matignon) in
In theory ministers are chosen by
the PM; in practice unless the President and the PM are from different
sides of the political spectrum (a system known as la cohabitation), PM and
president work together to form a government. The President must approve
the appointment of government ministers.
The cabinet, le Conseil des ministres,
meets on a weekly basis, and is presided over by the president. Ministers determine
policy and put new legislation before Parliament in the form of bills
(projets de loi); within
the framework of existing law, they apply policy through decrees (décrets).
The legislative branch:
The French parliament is made up of
two houses or chambers. The lower and principal house of parliament
is the Assemblée nationale,
or national assembly; the second chamber is the Sénat or Senate. Members
of Parliament, called Députés, are elected
by universal suffrage, in general elections (élections législatives) that
take place every five years. Senators are elected by "grand electors",
who are mostly other local elected representatives. The electoral system
for parliamentary elections involves two rounds; a candidate can be elected
on the first round by obtaining an absolute majority of votes cast.
The second round is a runoff between two or more candidates, usually
The judicial branch:
While the Minister of Justice, le Garde des Sceaux, has powers
over the running of the justice system and public prosecutors, the judiciary
is strongly independent of the executive and legislative branches. The
official handbook of French civil law is theCode Civil.
New bills (projets de loi), proposed
by government, and new pivate members bills (propositions de loi) must
be approved by both chambers, before becoming law. However, by virtue
of Article 49.3 of the French constitution, a government can override
parliamentary opposition and pass a law without a parilimentary vote.
This does not happen frequently, and in the framework of constitutional
amendments, president Sarkozy curtailed the possibility of using 49.3.
Laws and decrees are promulgated
when the official text is published in the Official Journal of the French
Republic, le Journal Officiel.
The Constitutional Council
The Constitutional Council , le Conseil constitutionnel,
exists to determine the constitutionality of new legislation or decrees.
It has powers to strike down a bill before it passes into law, if it
is deemed unconstitutional, or to demand the withdrawal of decrees even
after promulgation. The Council is made up of nine members, appointed
(three each) by the President of the Republic, the leader of the National
Assembly, and the leader of the Senate, plus all surviving former heads
In 2012, France is governed by the
Socialist Party and allies..
The main political parties are:
On the right: The Popular Union Movement
(UMP - Union pour un Mouvement Populaire),
Centre right: the New Centre (Nouveau Centre), and the
Union of Democrats and Independents (launched in 2012) l'Union des démocrates et indépendants,
Centre left: The Democratic Movement
On the left: the Socialist party (Parti Socialiste, PS) -
since June 2012 the party in power.
The French Communist Party (parti Communiste Français -
The Green Party (Europe Ecologie Les Verts)
(See more detailed article: Political parties in France)
France also has some surprisingly
resiliant extremist parties on the left and on the right, including
the NPA (Nouveau parti anticapitaliste)
and the trotskyist Workers' Party (Lutte ouvrière), and
the National Front (Front National).
The object of
the Term "political science" is formed of a combination of two
Greek words: politica - "policy" (city-state) and logos - "knowledge". Therefore political science etymologically determine as a science about the politician.
to understand that itself the political science as a science represents, it is necessary to establish
accurately object and asubject of studying of political science. As object of any science the certain area of reality acts. The object of science grows out of research actions.
of political science is all set of properties, communications and relations of public life which carry the name of the political. In other words, object of political science is the political sphere of public life including:
of the state-organised communications, interactions and relations;
of imperious relations as fundamental in political life;
of action of the political organisations and their ideological doctrines. Basic objects of research of political scienceare the state, the power and imperious relations. The political science concerns research of the given problems as to the social phenomena providing realisation
of general interest.
accepted to carry result of research actions in which process those
or other parties and laws of development and functioning of studied object are allocated to an object of science.
on the international colloquium of the leading western political scientists which have been conducted
in 1948 at the initiative of UNESCO, in a subject of a political science have been included:
1) the political theory (the political theory and history of political ideas);
2) political institutes (the constitution, the central management, regional and local management, public administration, the comparative analysis of political institutes);
groups and public opinion (political parties, groups and associations, participation of citizens
in management, public opinion);
4) the international relations (a world
policy, a policy and the international organisations, international
disagreements in understanding of that the political science studies, remain.
distinctions in understanding of essence of a political science the majority of researchers are inclined
to consider as its subject of interaction concerning the power. As the most active participants of these interactions the state, a society and the individual act. Hence, the political science can be specified as a science about the device, distribution and power realisation in a society, implemented
through interaction of the state
Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally—either
directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development,
and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions
that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.
The term originates from the Greek δημοκρατία (dēmokratía) "rule
of the people", which was coined from δῆμος (dêmos) "people"
and κράτος (kratos) "power"
or "rule" in the 5th century BCE to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens; the term is an antonym toἀριστοκρατία (aristokratia) "rule
of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition,
in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example,
granted democratic citizenship to an elite class of free men and excluded
slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all democratic
governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship
consisted of an elite class until full enfranchisement was won for all
adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements
of the 19th and 20th centuries. The English word dates to the 16th century,
from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.
Political system of Spain
Spain is a constitutional monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain. This was approved by a general referendum of the
people of Spain in 1978. The final interpretation of the Constitution,
in the case of dispute, is the business of the Constitutional Court of Spain
There are three main institutions known as the Cortes Generales, which are legally independent:
The general assembly of representatives whose controlling faction forms an executive government
and proposes legislative changes
The assembly of senators consider the wider implications and compatibility
of proposed legislation
The judicial branch composed of a hierarchy of law courts which ensure that any proposed or imposed executive
enforcement complies with Spanish andEuropean law
The Monarchy of
Spain holds the constitutional head of state, which has
no executive role, other than appointing officials, requiring reports
of official activities and representing Spain at formal and ceremonial
occasions. The king is also the commander
in chief of the Spanish Armed
Forces in which capacity he suppressed the 23-F Spanish coup d'état attempt in February 1981.
The King Juan Carlos
I has held this position since November 22, 1975. This
is a hereditary post, and the 1978 Constitution
of Spain is open to both male and female heirs, daughters
of a monarch, however, can inherit only if the monarch has no sons.
A proposal to change the constitution to give equal rights to males
and females to inherit the throne has not been decided on yet.
The Heir apparent is Prince Felipe, Prince
of Asturias, and some duties of state have been devolved to
The Military Chief of Staff (Jefe de Estado mayor) is General Admiral Fernando García Sánchez
Heads of Government
of the Government, sometimes misleadingly called "the Spanish
President", is the first minister and is elected by the Congress of
Deputies. The current holder is Mariano Rajoy
Brey, who was elected on December 21, 2011. He appoints
a number of vice-presidents ordered numerically according to rank and
responsible for their respective major ministries such as Finance, Foreign
affairs, Domestic administration, etc.
the Presidency and Vice President: María Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría Antón, appointed on December 21, 2011
Ministers (Spanish Consejo de Ministros) is designated by the president.
Political parties: Spanish Socialist
Workers Party (PSOE), Popular Party (PP), and the United Left (IU) coalition.
Key regional parties are the Convergence and Union (CIU) in Catalonia
and the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) in the Basque country.
When and where
appeared the political science for the first time?
The antecedents of Western politics
can be traced back to the Socratic political philosophers, Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon (c. 430–354 BC), and Aristotle ("The Father of Political Science")
(384–322 BC). These authors, in such works as The Republic and Laws by Plato, and The Politics and Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle, analyzed political
systems philosophically, going beyond earlier Greek poetic and historical
reflections which can be found in the works of epic poets like Homer and Hesiod, historians like Herodotus and Thucydides, and dramatists such as Sophocles,Aristophanes, and Euripides.
The main Kinds
Of the Republic
A republic is a form of government in which affairs of state are a "public
matter" (Latin: res publica), not the private concern of the
rulers, in which public offices are consequently appointed or elected
rather than privately accommodated (i.e., through inheritance or divine mandate).
A Federal Republic is a Federation
of Territories or States joined together and held together by a Central
Government. This Central Government is the Supreme Authority over the
States that are members of the Federation. The word Federation or Federal
Government has been Generalized and redefined over the years. For example
Federalism or Federation are currently used to Define the U.S. form
of Government, this is not an accurate truth in fact it is a hybrid
consisting of elemental of a Federal System and a Nation System.
I a Federation the States are a weaker
authority and have less power then the Central or nation government,
unlike a Confederation where the national government is Weaker and the
States are Stronger. T
A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit in which
the central government is supreme and any administrative
divisions(subnational units) exercise only
powers that their central government chooses to delegate. The great majority
of states in the world have a unitary system of
Political system of Russia
The Russian Federation is a Presidential (or a constitutional) republic.
The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the
people. In fact he has much power, he controls all the three branches
of power. The President can even dissolve the Duma if he doesn't agree
with his suggestions three times running. The President has his administration,
but it's not part of the Federal Government. The President is involved
in the work of the legislative and executive branches.
The Federal Assembly represents the Legislative branch of power. It's
made up of the two houses: the Federation Counsil and the State Duma,
which make laws. The Federal Assembly is also calld the Parlamrnt, but
it's not its oficial name. Both chambers are headed by chairmen sometimes
called speakers. The Duma consists of 450 deputies (one half is elected
personally py the population, and the other half consists of the deputies
who are appointed by their parties after voting). The members of the
Federation Counsil are elected on a different basis. There are two representatives
of each subject of the RF (89 subjects). Every law to be adapted must
be approved by the State Duma, the Counsil of Federation and signed
by the President. The President can veto laws passed by the Federal
Assembly, but it can pass laws over the President's veto a two-thirds
The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The
President appoints its head, the Chainman of the Government, but the
Dums must approve his appointment.
The juridical branch of power consists of the Constitutional Court,
the Supreme Court and lower Courts. The responsibility of the Constitutional
Court is to analyse the new laws to make sure they correspond to the
laws of the state. The Constitutional Court has tte right to declare
actions of the President, the Federal Assembly and the Federal Government
unconstitutional. The Supreme Court is the higest instance for civil
and criminal cases.