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A society, or a human society, is a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups.

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A society, or a human society, is a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups.

Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap.

A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as asubculture, a term used extensively within criminology.

More broadly, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society can be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; or a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may even, though more by means of metaphor, refer to a social organism such as an ant colonyor any cooperative aggregate such as, for example, in some formulations of artificial intelligence.



Politics (from Greek: politikos, meaning "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice and theory of influencing other people on a civic or individual level. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state. A variety of methods are employed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level.

A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius.

Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions about public policy".[1]




Kinds of dictatorship

A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic or authoritarian form of government in which a government is ruled by either an individual: a dictator, or an authoritarian party, as in an oligarchy. It has three possible meanings:

The most general term is despotism, a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. That entity may be an individual, as in an autocracy, or it may be a group,[5] as in an oligarchy. Despotism can mean tyranny (dominance through threat of punishment and violence), or absolutism; or dictatorship (a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator, not restricted by a constitution, laws or opposition, etc.).[6] Dictatorship may take the form of authoritarianism or totalitarianism.

Dictatorship is defined by Merriam-Webster[7] as 'a form of government in which absolute power is concentrated in a dictator or a small clique' or 'a government organisation or group in which absolute power is so concentrated', whereas democracy, with which the concept of dictatorship is often compared, is defined by most people as a form of government where those who govern are selected through contested elections. Authoritarian dictatorships are those where there is little political mobilization and "a small group exercises power within formally ill-defined limits but actually quite predictable ones".[8] Totalitarian dictatorships involve a "single party led by a single powerful individual with a powerful secret police and a highly developed ideology." Here, the government has "total control of mass communications and social and economic organizations".[9] Hannah Arendtlabelled totalitarianism a new and extreme form of dictatorship involving "atomized, isolated individuals" in which ideology plays a leading role in defining how the entire society should be organised.[10] Juan Linz argues that the distinction between an authoritarian regime and a totalitarian one is that while an authoritarian one seeks to suffocate politics and political mobilization (depoliticization), a totalitarian one seeks to control politics and political mobilization.[11]

Dictatorships may be classified in a number of ways, such as

  • Military dictatorship

    • "arbitrator" and "ruler" types may be distinguished; arbitrator regimes are professional, civilian-oriented, willing to give up power once problems have been resolved, and support the existing social order; "ruler" types view civilians as incompetent and have no intention of returning power to them, are politically organised, and have a coherent ideology[12]

  • Single-party state

    • "weak" and "strong" versions may be distinguished; in weak single-party states, "at least one other actor eclipses the role of the party (like a single individual, the military, or the president)."[13] Joseph Stalin era in Soviet Union [14] and Mao Zedong era in China can be given as example.[15]

  • Personalist

  • Hybrid

Dictators may attain power in a number of ways.

  • Family dictatorship - inheriting power through family ties

  • Military dictatorship - through military force or coup d'etat. In Latin America, military dictatorships were often ruled by committees known as military juntas.

  • Constitutional dictatorship - dictatorial powers provided for by constitutional means (often as a proviso in case of emergency)

  • Self-coup - by suspending existing democratic mechanisms after attaining office by constitutional means.

A stable dictatorship is a dictatorship that is able to remain in power for long periods. The stable dictatorship theory concerning the Soviet Union held that after the succession crisis following Joseph Stalin's death, the victorious leader assumed the status of a Stalinist dictator without Stalin's terror apparatus.[19] Chile andParaguay were considered to be stable dictatorships in the 1970s.[20] It has been argued that stable dictatorships behave differently than unstable dictatorships. For instance, Maria Brouwer opines that "expansionary policies can fail and undermine the authority of the leader. Stable dictators, would therefore, be inclined to refrain from military aggression. This applies to imperial China, Byzantium and Japan, which refrained from expanding their empire at some point in time. Emerging dictators, by contrast, want to win the people’s support by promising them riches from appropriating domestic or foreign wealth. They have not much to lose from failure, whereas success could elevate them to positions of wealth and power."[21]


Political system of France

France is a republic; the institutions of governance of France are defined by theConstitution, more specifically by the current constitution, being that of the Fifth Republic. The Constitution has been modified several times since the start of the Fifth Republic, most recently in July 2008, when the French "Congress" (A joint convention of the two chambers of Parliament) approved - by 1 vote over the 60% majority required - constitutional changes proposed by President Sarkozy. 
The Fifth Republic: The fifth republic was established in 1958, and was largely the work of General de Gaulle - its first president,  and Michel Debré his prime minister. It has been amended 17 times. Though the French constitution is parliamentary, it gave relatively extensive powers to the executive (President and Ministers) compared to other western democracies.   
The executive branch:   
The head of state and head of the executive is the President, elected by universal suffrage. Since May 2012, France's president is François Hollande. Originally, a president of the Fifth Republic was elected for a 7-year term (le septennat), renewable any number of times. Since 2002 the President has been elected for a 5-year term (le quinquennat). Since the passing of the 2008 Constitutional reform, the maximum number of terms a president can serve has been limited to two.  
The President, who is also supreme commander of the military, determines policy with the aid of his Council of Ministers (Conseil des ministres). The residence of the President of the French Republic is the Elysée Palace (le palais de l'Elysée) in Paris. 
The President appoints a prime minister (currently - 2012 - Jean-Marc Ayrault) , who forms a government. The residence of the French Prime Minister is at Matignon House (l'Hôtel Matignon) in Paris. 
In theory ministers are chosen by the PM; in practice unless the President and the PM are from different sides of the political spectrum (a system known as la cohabitation), PM and president work together to form a government. The President must approve the appointment of government ministers. 
The cabinet, le Conseil des ministres, meets on a weekly basis, and is presided over by the president. Ministers determine policy and put new legislation before Parliament in the form of bills (projets de loi); within the framework of existing law, they apply policy through decrees (décrets).  
The legislative branch: 
The French parliament is made up of two houses or chambers. The lower and principal house of parliament is the Assemblée nationale, or national assembly; the second chamber is the Sénat or Senate. Members of Parliament, called Députés, are elected by universal suffrage, in general elections (élections législatives) that take place every five years. Senators are elected by "grand electors", who are mostly other local elected representatives. The electoral system for parliamentary elections involves two rounds; a candidate can be elected on the first round by obtaining an absolute majority of votes cast. The second round is a runoff between  two or more candidates, usually two..

The judicial branch: 
While the Minister of Justice, le Garde des Sceaux,  has powers over the running of the justice system and public prosecutors, the judiciary is strongly independent of the executive and legislative branches. The official handbook of French civil law is theCode Civil.  
Promulgation of laws: 
New bills (projets de loi), proposed by government, and new pivate members bills (propositions de loi) must be approved by both chambers, before becoming law.  However, by virtue of Article 49.3 of the French constitution, a government can override parliamentary opposition and pass a law without a parilimentary vote. This does not happen frequently, and in the framework of constitutional amendments, president Sarkozy  curtailed the possibility of  using 49.3.  
Laws and decrees are promulgated when the official text is published in the Official Journal of the French Republic, le Journal Officiel. 

The Constitutional Council

The Constitutional Council , le Conseil constitutionnel,  exists to determine the constitutionality of new legislation or decrees. It has powers to strike down a bill before it passes into law, if it is deemed unconstitutional, or to demand the withdrawal of decrees even after promulgation. The Council is made up of nine members, appointed (three each) by the President of the Republic, the leader of the National Assembly, and the leader of the Senate, plus all surviving former heads of state. 
Political parties;  
In 2012, France is governed by the Socialist Party and allies..  
The main political parties are: 
On the right: The Popular Union Movement (UMP - Union pour un Mouvement Populaire), 
Centre right: the New Centre (Nouveau Centre),  and the Union of Democrats and Independents (launched in 2012) l'Union des démocrates et indépendants,  
Centre left:  The Democratic Movement (Mouvement Démocratique, MoDem) 
On the left: the Socialist party (Parti Socialiste, PS) - since June 2012 the party in power. 
The French Communist Party (parti Communiste Français - PCF). 
The Green Party (Europe Ecologie Les Verts) 
(See more detailed article: Political parties in France) 
France also has some surprisingly resiliant extremist parties on the left and on the right, including the NPA (Nouveau parti anticapitaliste) and the trotskyist Workers' Party (Lutte ouvrière), and the National Front (Front National).































The object of politology


the Term "political science" is formed of a combination of two Greek words: politica - "policy" (city-state) and logos - "knowledge". Therefore political science etymologically determine as a science about the politician.  
to understand that itself the political science as a science represents, it is necessary to establish accurately object and asubject of studying of political science. As object of any science the certain area of reality acts. The object of science grows out of research actions.  
Object of political science is all set of properties, communications and relations of public life which carry the name of the political. In other words, object of political science is the political sphere of public life including:  
1) sphere of the state-organised communications, interactions and relations;  
2) sphere of imperious relations as fundamental in political life;  
3) sphere of action of the political organisations and their ideological doctrines. Basic objects of research of political scienceare the state, the power and imperious relations. The political science concerns research of the given problems as to the social phenomena providing realisation of general interest.  
It is accepted to carry result of research actions in which process those or other parties and laws of development and functioning of studied object are allocated to an object of science.  
on the international colloquium of the leading western political scientists which have been conducted in 1948 at the initiative of UNESCO, in a subject of a political science have been included:  
1) the political theory (the political theory and history of political ideas);  
2) political institutes (the constitution, the central management, regional and local management, public administration, the comparative analysis of political institutes);  
3) batches, groups and public opinion (political parties, groups and associations, participation of citizens in management, public opinion);  
4) the international relations (a world policy, a policy and the international organisations, international law).  
However disagreements in understanding of that the political science studies, remain.  
at all distinctions in understanding of essence of a political science the majority of researchers are inclined to consider as its subject of interaction concerning the power. As the most active participants of these interactions the state, a society and the individual act. Hence, the political science can be specified as a science about the device, distribution and power realisation in a society, implemented through interaction of the state




Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.

The term originates from the Greek δημοκρατία (dēmokratía) "rule of the people",[1] which was coined from δῆμος (dêmos) "people" and κράτος (kratos) "power" or "rule" in the 5th century BCE to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens; the term is an antonym toἀριστοκρατία (aristokratia) "rule of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically.[2] The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to an elite class of free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.


Political system of Spain

Spain is a constitutional monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain. This was approved by a general referendum of the people of Spain in 1978. The final interpretation of the Constitution, in the case of dispute, is the business of the Constitutional Court of Spain

There are three main institutions known as the Cortes Generales, which are legally independent:

  • The general assembly of representatives whose controlling faction forms an executive government and proposes legislative changes

  • The assembly of senators consider the wider implications and compatibility of proposed legislation

  • The judicial branch composed of a hierarchy of law courts which ensure that any proposed or imposed executive enforcement complies with Spanish andEuropean law

  • The Monarchy of Spain holds the constitutional head of state, which has no executive role, other than appointing officials, requiring reports of official activities and representing Spain at formal and ceremonial occasions. The king is also the commander in chief of the Spanish Armed Forces in which capacity he suppressed the 23-F Spanish coup d'état attempt in February 1981.

    • The King Juan Carlos I has held this position since November 22, 1975. This is a hereditary post, and the 1978 Constitution of Spain is open to both male and female heirs, daughters of a monarch, however, can inherit only if the monarch has no sons. A proposal to change the constitution to give equal rights to males and females to inherit the throne has not been decided on yet.

    • The Heir apparent is Prince Felipe, Prince of Asturias, and some duties of state have been devolved to him

    • The Military Chief of Staff (Jefe de Estado mayor) is General Admiral Fernando García Sánchez

Heads of Government

  • President of the Government, sometimes misleadingly called "the Spanish President", is the first minister and is elected by the Congress of Deputies. The current holder is Mariano Rajoy Brey, who was elected on December 21, 2011. He appoints a number of vice-presidents ordered numerically according to rank and responsible for their respective major ministries such as Finance, Foreign affairs, Domestic administration, etc.

    • Minister for the Presidency and Vice President: María Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría Antón, appointed on December 21, 2011

  • Cabinet

    • Council of Ministers (Spanish Consejo de Ministros) is designated by the president.

Political parties: Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Popular Party (PP), and the United Left (IU) coalition. Key regional parties are the Convergence and Union (CIU) in Catalonia and the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) in the Basque country.































When and where appeared the political science for the first time?

The antecedents of Western politics can be traced back to the Socratic political philosophers, Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon (c. 430–354 BC), and Aristotle ("The Father of Political Science") (384–322 BC). These authors, in such works as The Republic and Laws by Plato, and The Politics and Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle, analyzed political systems philosophically, going beyond earlier Greek poetic and historical reflections which can be found in the works of epic poets like Homer and Hesiod, historians like Herodotus and Thucydides, and dramatists such as Sophocles,Aristophanes, and Euripides.


The main Kinds Of the Republic

A republic is a form of government in which affairs of state are a "public matter" (Latin: res publica), not the private concern of the rulers, in which public offices are consequently appointed or elected rather than privately accommodated (i.e., through inheritance or divine mandate).

A Federal Republic is a Federation of Territories or States joined together and held together by a Central Government. This Central Government is the Supreme Authority over the States that are members of the Federation. The word Federation or Federal Government has been Generalized and redefined over the years. For example Federalism or Federation are currently used to Define the U.S. form of Government, this is not an accurate truth in fact it is a hybrid consisting of elemental of a Federal System and a Nation System.  
I a Federation the States are a weaker authority and have less power then the Central or nation government, unlike a Confederation where the national government is Weaker and the States are Stronger. T

A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions(subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate. The great majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government.

Political system of Russia

The Russian Federation is a Presidential (or a constitutional) republic. The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the people. In fact he has much power, he controls all the three branches of power. The President can even dissolve the Duma if he doesn't agree with his suggestions three times running. The President has his administration, but it's not part of the Federal Government. The President is involved in the work of the legislative and executive branches.

The Federal Assembly represents the Legislative branch of power. It's made up of the two houses: the Federation Counsil and the State Duma, which make laws. The Federal Assembly is also calld the Parlamrnt, but it's not its oficial name. Both chambers are headed by chairmen sometimes called speakers. The Duma consists of 450 deputies (one half is elected personally py the population, and the other half consists of the deputies who are appointed by their parties after voting). The members of the Federation Counsil are elected on a different basis. There are two representatives of each subject of the RF (89 subjects). Every law to be adapted must be approved by the State Duma, the Counsil of Federation and signed by the President. The President can veto laws passed by the Federal Assembly, but it can pass laws over the President's veto a two-thirds majority.

The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The President appoints its head, the Chainman of the Government, but the Dums must approve his appointment.

The juridical branch of power consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and lower Courts. The responsibility of the Constitutional Court is to analyse the new laws to make sure they correspond to the laws of the state. The Constitutional Court has tte right to declare actions of the President, the Federal Assembly and the Federal Government unconstitutional. The Supreme Court is the higest instance for civil and criminal cases.

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