Personal development

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How to develop the personality, as from "non-personal" or "non-personal yet" to born person. The baby is obviously can not be a person. Adult, no doubt, the person. How and where this transition has occurred, the transformation, the jump to a new level? This process is gradual, step-by-step, we are moving forward to becoming a person. Is there any movement in the pattern or is it purely random? That's where we have to get to the starting line a long discussion on how to develop a person becomes a person.


1. The nature of personality
2. Personal development and its factors
3. Stages of personality development

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Personal development

















Serghei Cheptea









Table of content



1. The nature of personality

2. Personal development and its factors

3. Stages of personality development




























How to develop the personality, as from "non-personal" or "non-personal yet" to born person. The baby is obviously can not be a person. Adult, no doubt, the person. How and where this transition has occurred, the transformation, the jump to a new level? This process is gradual, step-by-step, we are moving forward to becoming a person. Is there any movement in the pattern or is it purely random? That's where we have to get to the starting line a long discussion on how to develop a person becomes a person.

Personal development of the human bears the stamp of his age and individual characteristics that must be considered in the process of education. With age, the nature of the related person, especially his thinking, the range of his inquiries, interests, and social manifestations. However, each age has its own capabilities and limitations in the development. For example, the development of thinking skills and memory are the most intense in childhood and adolescence. If the possibility of this period in the development of thinking and memory will not be a proper use, in later years, it is difficult, if not impossible to catch up. At the same time, can not give an effect attempts to get ahead, carrying the physical, mental and moral development of the child without regard to his age features.


The concept of personality


As the supreme creation of nature, in the known universe, man is not static, once and for all the data. It changes and develops. In the process of development, it becomes a person, fully responsible for their deeds and actions. 

Essential to the pedagogy is clarification of the term "person." In what ratio is the concept with the concept of "man"? Concept of "identity" expresses a set of social qualities that an individual has acquired in the course of life and shows them in various forms of activity and behavior. This concept is used as a social characteristic of the person. Does every person is a person? Obviously not. Person was not a person in the tribal system, as his life was completely subordinated to the interests of the primitive group, dissolved in it, and his personal interests have not yet acquired the proper autonomy. Not the identity of the man gone mad. Is not a person a human child. He has a particular set of biological properties and features, but up to a certain period of life devoid of signs of the social order. Therefore, he can not commit deeds and actions, prompted a sense of social responsibility.

Personality - a social characteristic of a person, is the one who is capable of independent social and beneficial activities. In the development of a person reveals his internal properties inherent in it the nature and formed in his life and education, a man - a dual being, it is peculiar dualism, like everything in nature: biological and social.

Personality - this sense of self, the outer world and place in it. Such a definition of identity given at the time Hegel. And the most successful modern pedagogy is defined as: a person - a stand-alone, distanced from society, self-organized system, and the social nature of man.

The famous philosopher Tugarinov among the most important personality traits attributed

1. intelligence,

2. responsibility

3. freedom

4. personal dignity,

5. individuality.

Personality - a social aspect of man as the subject of public relations and actions reflecting the combination of social roles that it plays in society. It seems that every man may act in multiple roles. In carrying out all these roles he has formed the appropriate character traits, mannerisms, the forms of reaction, views, beliefs, interests, aptitudes, and so on, which together constitute what we call personality.

"Personality" is used to describe the universal, inherent to all skills and abilities. This concept emphasizes the presence in the world of such a singular historically developing community, as a species, mankind, which is different from all other material systems, its specific way of life.

"If you want to bring up human pedagogy in all respects, it must first know him too, in every way" - so Ushinsky understands one of the conditions of educational activity: to study the nature of the child. Pedagogy should have a scientific understanding of the individual student as a student - is the subject while the subject of the pedagogical process. Depending on the understanding of personality and its development are based educational system. Therefore, the question of the nature of the individual is methodological in nature and has not only theoretical but also practical importance. In science, differ concepts: a person, individual, individuality, personality.

Person - a species highly animals capable of consciousness, speech, work.

Individual - a single individual, the human body with a characteristic features. Individual refers to a man as special with a typical and universal. The concept of "individual" in this case is used in the sense of "particular person". In this formulation, the issue is not fixed as the characteristics of the various biological factors (age-, sex, temperament), and differences in the social conditions of human life. The individual in this case is considered as a starting point for the formation of the human personality, the personality - the result of development of the individual, the most complete embodiment of all human qualities.

Individuality is also related to the concept of personality, reflecting the specific features of the individual.

Personality (central concept for human science) - a man as the bearer of consciousness, social roles, the social partners, as a social being and forms in conjunction with other activities and interactions.

The word "person" is used only in relation to man, and, moreover, only starting from a certain stage of its development. We do not say "personality newborn", understanding it as an individual. We really do not talk about the identity of the child, even two years, even though he got a lot of the social environment. Therefore, a person is not a product overlapping biological and social factors.

Split personality - not a figurative expression, but a real fact. But the expression "dichotomy of the individual" - an absurdity, a contradiction in terms. Both - integrity, but different. Individual, as opposed to the individual, not the integrity due genotype: a person is not born, the individual becomes. Personality relatively late product of the socio - historical and ontogenetic development of the individual.

AN Leont'ev emphasized inability to equate the terms "person" and "individual" because the person - this is a special quality to be purchased by an individual public relations.


Personal development and its factors


Since human personality develop in vivo, for pedagogy important disclosure of the essence of "development."

Personality development - is one of the main categories in the psychology and pedagogy. Psychologists explain the laws of mental development, education builds the theory of how purposefully guide the development of the person. In science, there is a formula: a man born, person become. Consequently, the personal qualities acquired in development.

Personality development is understood as a process of quantitative and qualitative changes under the influence of external and internal factors. Development leads to a change in personality traits, to the emergence of new properties, psychologists call their tumors. Personality change from age to age takes place in the following areas:

physiological development (skeletal muscle and other body systems)

mental development (the processes of perception, thinking, etc.),

social development (formation of the moral feelings, learning social roles, etc.).

Development occurs:

1. In the unity of biological and social aspects in a person.

2. Dialectical (the transition of quantitative changes into qualitative changes of physical, mental and spiritual characteristics of the individual), the development is uneven (each organ develops at their own pace), the intensity in childhood and adolescence, and then slows down.

There is an optimum time for the formation of certain types of mental activity. These periods are called optimal sensitivity. The reason - the uneven maturation of the brain and nervous system. (Age 6 to 12 years - the best for the development of problem solving skills. Foreign Language - 3-6 years of reading - from 2 to 5 years old, swimming - up to a year, developing training - 1-2 years> 1-2 honors classes .)

The plasticity of the nervous system: the weak features may be offset by strong (weak memory - high organization of cognitive activity).

  1. by resolving the conflict (between the needs and the possibilities of their satisfaction of the child and the needs of society, between the goals it has set for itself, and the conditions of their achievements, etc.).
  2. through activities (play, work, study)

Controversy in science is the question of what drives the development of the individual, what factors influenced it occurs. Analysis of the factors of development started back ancients. Everyone was curious to know the answer to the question, why different people get different levels of development? What influences the development of personality?


Scheme 1

Factors affecting the development of the individual

Development is determined by internal and external conditions. Environmental influences and upbringing are the external factors of development, a natural inclination and desire, as well as the entire set of human feelings and emotions that arise under the influence of external factors (environment and upbringing), refers to internal factors. Development and formation of the personality is the result of the interaction of these two factors.

In terms of the biologically oriented areas, development is understood as an expansion of the genetic program of the organism as genetically programmed maturation of natural forces. Hence, the determining factor of downpayment - anatomical and physiological characteristics of an organism are inherited from ancestors. A variant of this position is to look at the individual development (ontogeny) as the repetition of all the stages that a man was in the process of its historical evolution (phylogeny) in ontogeny in compressed form recapitulates phylogeny. According to Freud, the basis of human development are also biological processes, manifested in various forms of libido - sex drive.

Many psychologists, biologists argue that child development is predetermined by instinct, the particular genes of consciousness, permanent carriers of inherited traits. This gave rise to the early 20th century, the doctrine of the diagnosis of personality traits and practices of the testing of children in primary school, the division of the test results for groups that need to be trained in different programs in accordance with their abilities, data nature. However, science has no clear answer to the question of what biological heritage of man.

Sociologically oriented directions consider the environment as determined by the source of human development. Environment is all that is human surroundings. Some scholars have identified a group of environmental factors. To macro factors include cosmos, the world, the climate, society, state, mezofaktors - certain social groups and institutions, schools, the media, mikrofaktors - family, peers. Development and formation of the person under the influence of environmental factors in sociology is called socialization. In teaching, as has been said; it is close to the concept of education in the social sense.


Scheme 2

Levels of development

LS Vygotsky substantiated law, according to which the goals and methods of education should not only conform to the level of development already achieved by the child, but also the "zone of proximal development."

Education, which is advancing the development of up - recognized, and a straight line - no. Therefore, the task of education is to create a zone of proximal development, which then goes into a zone of actual development, promote the development of the body, identity and personality of the child. Child we do not just swap step by step, the child takes a proactive stance. Education plays a crucial role in the development of the individual, it affects the internal promotion of its activity in the work of the other, that is, in self-development.

Personality is not only a product of outside influences. Its biography is in many ways "writes" itself, showing independence and subjective activity. To some extent, every person makes his life, he defines the line and style of his behavior. It is not a simple "calque" of external environmental conditions, and acts as a result of individual interaction with the environment. To influence and impact protection is person selectively, taking one and rejecting the other. Moreover, a person has an active influence on the environment, changes, transforms it, adapting to their needs and requirements. Changing environment, it is simultaneously changing himself, mastering new skills, knowledge and skills. With shovels and excavators, for example, a person does the same job. However, the digger can not just throw a shovel and climb into the cab excavator. He must learn to use a new technique, to master skills with it. In other words, people - not only the object of influence from the outside, but the subject, the creator of your own life, its development.

Personality development includes the development of its different sides. It is both physical and intellectual, and political and legal, and moral, and environmental, and aesthetic development. Moreover, the development of various aspects of its happening with varying speed, uneven. One part of its during various historical periods could develop more rapidly and others more slowly. So, physically contemporary man is not much different from the one who lived 50,000 years ago, although the physical development of the human body at this time also occurred. Development as his intellect, reason for it was truly a huge: from the primitive state of primitive thinking has made a giant leap forward, reaching the heights of the current level. The possibilities of the human mind in this regard are limitless. As, however, has no boundaries and the development of the whole person.

Scientific analysis of the problems of personality development pedagogy leads to the following conclusions methodological. Educational process should be seen as a major factor in the formation of personality, which leads to the development of a relatively new paradigm in education, upgrade all components of the pedagogical process. This paradigm has received in the name of science, student-centered education. The development of such a view requires both scholars and practitioners from teachers rely on the approaches mentioned above: the system, personality, activity, and process.


Stages of development of the individual


The process of development of the individual is subordinate to psychological patterns that are played relatively independent of the peculiarities of the group in which it occurs: in primary schools, and in the new company and the production team, and in a military unit, and a sports team. They again and again to be repeated, but every time new content. They can be called the phases of development of the individual. There are three phases.

So, the first phase of personality. Man can not fulfill his need for personalization before mastered in the Group rules (moral, educational, industrial, etc.) and does not master those techniques and means of activity, others are owned by its members.

This is achieved (some more successfully than others), but in the end, the experience of a loss of their individual differences. It may seem that it is completely dissolved in the "total weight." Is a kind of temporary loss of identity. But it is his subjective views, because in fact people often keeps himself in other people by their deeds that have meaning for other people, not just for himself. Objectively, it is at this stage may, under certain circumstances, to speak for the other as a person.

The second phase is generated by the escalating conflict between the need to "be like everyone else," and the human desire for maximum personalization. Well, have to find ways and means to achieve this aim, to describe his personality.

For example, if someone came to him in a new company, it seems, will not try it immediately stand out, but first try to learn the rules it adopted in communication, then what can be called the language of the group allowed in her manner of dress generally accepted in her interests, find out who, to his friend and who is foe.

But here, on the right, finally, with the difficulties of the adaptation period, realizing that for the company it is "his", sometimes vaguely, sometimes sharply, he begins to realize that, following this tactic, he as a person, to some extent lose themselves, so that others can not, in these circumstances see it. Do not make out because of its inconspicuous and "similarity" on anyone.

The third phase - integration - is determined by the contradictions between the already existing human desire to be perfectly represented in the others with the characteristics and needs of others accept, approve, and cultivate only those of its individual properties, which impressed them, consistent with their values, contribute to their overall success, etc.

The result is that some have found differences (wit, humor, dedication, etc.) are accepted and supported, and others that show, for example, cynicism, laziness, the desire to blame their mistakes on the other, impudence, can meet active resistance.

In the first scenario, the integration of the individual in the group. Second, if conflicts are unresolved - disintegration has the effect of crowding out the personality of the group. It may happen that there will be actual person insulation, leading to consolidation in the nature of many of the negative traits.

Each of these phases and polishing generates personality in its most important aspects and qualities - they occur microcycle its development. Imagine that a person can not overcome the difficulties of the adaptation period and entered the second phase of development - it probably will be formed as a dependency, lack of initiative, compromise appears shyness, lack of confidence in themselves and their abilities. He seemed to be "stalled" in the first phase of establishment and approval of us as individuals, and this leads to its serious deformation.

If, being already in the phase of individuation, he is trying to implement their own needs "to be a person" and makes those around their individual differences, which they did not accept and reject as not relevant to their needs and interests, and it promotes the development of his aggressiveness, isolation, suspicion, high self-esteem and lower estimates of others, "a care," etc. Perhaps, it is taken "gloom" character resentment.




People - being active. Included in the system of social relations and modified during the activity, the person gets personality and becomes a social actor.

In contrast to the individual, the person does not have integrity, due to genotype: a person is not born a person becomes. Some influence on the development and formation of the person providing the social process of becoming "self."

The content of the process of social "I" - is the interaction with their peers. The purpose of this process - a search of their social place in society. The result of this process is a mature person. The main time points of identity formation is: awareness of the "I" and understanding the "I". This concludes the initial socialization and personality formation.

Establishment of a social "I" is possible only as a process of assimilation of views important people for the person, that is, understanding of other child comes to the formation of his social "I" (the first time a process described Ch.Kuli). You can say it differently: the social - psychological level of social formation "I" is through internalization of cultural norms and social values. A process of transformation of external standards in internal rules of conduct.

Personality is formed such a relationship, which is not, and never has been, and in principle can not exist in nature - namely, social. It expands a set of social relations, and therefore, a dynamic ensemble of people linked by reciprocal ties. Therefore, a person not only exists, but is born, that is, as a "bundle" tied in a network of reciprocal relations.

Identity of the person will be when he starts to improve the social factor of its activity, that is, the other side which is aimed at society. Therefore, the foundation of the individual to the social relationships, but only those that are implemented in the activity.

Recognizing themselves as individuals to determine their place in society and way of life (destiny), a person becomes an individual acquires dignity and freedom, which allow to distinguish it then any other person, to stand out from the rest.





























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